Mental functionality tests to rate rehabilitative training effects in racing skiers' training systems

Фотографии: 

PhD A.Y. Dron1
Dr.Hab., Professor I.G. Gibadullin2
Postgraduate K.M.-R. Kasumov1
1Surgut State Pedagogical University, Surgut
2Kalashnikov Izhevsk State Technical University, Izhevsk

Keywords: cross country skiing, psycho-functional state, beginner group, rehabilitation training, qigong, pilates.

Introduction. Skiing sport has suffered a fair amount of changes in recent years. The most essential psychological and functional features required of athletes have been reconsidered too. These changes have led to low physical working capacity, which, in turn, may result in a number of vegetative shifts in the state of health.

According to O. A. Nemova [3]: "Today a significant discrepancy is often observed between the level of young athletes’ physical, technical and psychological fitness and the specified requirements for competitive activity. Early specialized training, considerable amount of competitive loads and hereto related stresses have a negative effect on young athletes’ mental state". This problem is still insufficiently studied and remains relevant up to date.

Objective of the study was to rate the rehabilitative training effects in beginner racing skiers with due allowance made for their psycho-functional state

Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study were 30 beginner racing skiers in the 2nd-3rd years of study (October, 2015 - May, 2016). The tests were conducted in the morning hours prior to the first training session, as the rates are normally the most stable at this time of the day. The following instrumental analytical methods for analyzing the psycho-functional state were used: the hardware-software complex "NS-Psychotest.NET" by Neurosoft Company (Moscow), including the following: simple visual motor response (SVMR) test; tapping test; and response to moving object (RMO) test.

Results and discussion. The level of the functional status of the central nervous system (CNS) was assessed based on the results of the surveillance study of the sensorimotor reaction of the visual-motor analyzer (VMA) using the simple visual-motor reaction (SVMR) test.

Table 1. Simple visual-motor reaction rates in young racing skiers (M± σ)

Indicators

RG,

n = 15

SG,

n = 15

Significance of differences

FLS, 1/s2

4.03±0.37

4.09±0.41

p>0.05

RS,1/s

1.60±0.52

1.52±0.59

p>0.05

FCL, 1/s2

3.02±0.56

3.01±0.57

p>0.05

Sensorimotor reaction time, ms

316.81±64.96

310.65±82.11

p>0.05

 

The study by the methodology "SVMR" found that the time of the simple visual-motor reaction in all the examined groups testifies to the pronounced inertia of the nervous processes, i.e. athletes are characterized by intensive excitation and inhibitory processes and poor mobility of CNS and always have difficulty switching from one activity to another.

The functionality level of the system (FLS) evaluated by the "SVMR" test was below normal in both the study and reference groups, which indicated slow compensatory adaptation processes. The reaction stability (RS) and functional capacity level (FCL) rates in young males were also low, which indicated weak stability of the central nervous system and low capacity to form and maintain the corresponding functional systems.

Table 2. "Tapping test" rates in junior racing skiers (M±σ)

Indicators

RG,

n = 15

SG,

n = 15

Significance of differences

Lability, reps

31.31±8.04

33.10±4.16

p>0.05

Endurance, reps

165.60±24.59

178.40±17.26

p>0.05

Average frequency, Hz

5.77±0.75

6.06±0.59

p>0.05

Power of CNS, c.u.

3.20±0.94

3.89±0.75

p>0.05

 

The CNS lability was assessed on a 10-point scale. During the tapping test young males demonstrated a 6-point result, which is interpreted as an average level of lability. The endurance indices were also at the average level (6-point result).

During the analysis of the types of "Tapping test" curves, we found that it is the weak type of the nervous system that predominates in all subjects: 67% in the reference group and 67% in the SG, i.e. the initial maximum rate decreases as early as during the 5-second interval and does not increase during the entire period of work. This fact proves that at this stage young males are characterized by the weak-type nervous system.

Also 27% of young males of the reference group had an interim medium weak type of the nervous system, 6% - a medium weak one. With the interim type of the nervous system, the rate of initial work decreases after 10 seconds, but at the same time the difference between the worst results is not significant. The medium weak type of the nervous system is characterized by a decrease in the maximum rate of work, followed by a short-term regain in the initial rate.

Table 3. "Reaction to a moving object" rates in junior racing skiers (M±σ)

Indicators

CG,

n = 15

EG,

n = 15

Significance of differences

Early reactions, %

31.33±13.47

27.67±9.40

p>0.05

Delayed reactions, %

31.93±11.76

26.27±10.17

p>0.05

Accurate reactions, %

34.53±8.83

45.20±13.37

p>0.05

 

The "Reaction to a moving object" test showed that in both of the groups the number of early reactions and the number of delayed reactions did not differ statistically significantly, consequently, we detected a balance of the nervous processes.

The rehabilitation training plan for beginner racing skiers included the system of rehabilitative measures implemented in the course of training, during the day and microcycle.

We introduced a complex of training techniques to recover the condition of beginner racing skiers: a 15-20-minute autogenic training was applied at the beginning of the training session; a 20-30-minute set of qigong exercises was applied at the end of the training session; in the middle of the training microcycle, the training session was entirely dedicated to fitness - pilates. It was followed by qigong and autogenic training.

Table 4. Benefits of implemented complex of rehabilitation training means in terms of simple visual-motor reaction test (M±σ)

Indicators

RG (after),

n = 15

SG (after),

n = 15

Significance of differences

FLS, 1/s2

4.03±0.37

4.60±0.52

p<0.05

RS, 1/s

1.60±0.52

1.91±0.45

-

FCL, 1/s2

3.02±0.56

3.61±0.42

p<0.05

Sensorimotor reaction time, ms

316.81±64.96

281.02±63.44

p<0.05

 

Based on the results reported in Table 4, we can state that the functionality level of the system and its functional capacity differ statistically significantly (p<0.05), which indicates considerable rehabilitative training effects on beginner racing skiers.

Table 5. Benefits benefits of implemented rehabilitation training complex in terms of "Tapping test" (M±σ)

Indicators

RG (after),

n = 15

SG (after),

n = 15

Significance of differences

Lability, number of times

33.47±4.98

37.34±3.53

p<0.05

Endurance, number of times

170.87±21.74

192.53±14.91

p<0.05

Average frequency, Hz

5.68±0.83

6.57±0.53

p<0.05

Strength of CNS, c.u.

3.25±1.13

3.37±0.80

-

 

Based on the results reported in Table 5, we can state significant differences between lability, endurance, and average frequency rates (p<0.05). Thus, the psycho-functional state indices in the SG athletes clearly demonstrate the rehabilitative training effects.

Implementation of the developed training complex aimed to recover the psycho-functional state, enabled to reveal that it was the weak type of the nervous system that prevailed in the RG - 60%, while in the SG the weak and interim medium weak types of the nervous system leveled, 47% each, respectively. Besides, 20% of young males of the RG were found to have average type of nervous system, 15% - interim medium weak, and 5% - medium weak type of the nervous system. 47% of young males of the SG had an interim medium weak type of the nervous system and 6% - medium weak one.

Table 6. Benefits of implemented rehabilitation training complex in terms of "Reaction to a moving object" (M±σ)

Indicators

RG,

n = 15

SG,

n = 15

Significance of differences

Early reactions, %

28.00±8.04

37.20±16.90

p<0,05

Delayed reactions, %

24.53±9.81

18.53±9.24

p<0,05

Accurate reactions, %

45.27±9.72

41.47±15.37

-

 
Based on the results reported in Table 6, we can see a statistically significant difference (p<0.05) between the number of early and late responses, which testifies to the efficiency of the designed rehabilitation training complex for beginner racing skier groups.

Conclusion. The rehabilitative training model designed for the study group in application to the beginner racing skiers contributes to the growth of their working capacity rates, rehabilitation process rates and more efficient competitive performance rates.

References

  1. Gibadullin I.G. Upravlenie trenirovochnym protsessom v sisteme mnogoletney podgotovki biatlonistov [Management of training process in long-term training system of biathletes]. Izhevsk: IzhSTU publ., 2005, 208 pp.
  2. Ilyin E.P. Psikhologiya sporta [Sports psychology]. St. Petersburg: Piter publ., 2013, 352 p.
  3. Nemova O.A., Sklyarenko A.V. Sovershenstvovanie sportivnogo masterstva lyzhnikov-gonshchikov v vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniyakh. Ucheb. posobie [Sport skills building and mastering in racing skiers in higher education institutions. Study guide]. Khabarovsk: KhSAL publ., 2010, 91 p.
  4. Yatsenko L.G. Vliyanie funktsionalnogo sostoyaniya tsentralnoy nervnoy sistemy na rost sportivnoy kvalifikatsii lyzhnikov i biatlonistov [Influence of functional state of central nervous system on sports qualification progress of skiers and biathlonists]. Mat. Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. "Sovremennye problemy teorii i praktiki sportivnoy meditsiny i fizicheskoy reabilitatsii" [Proc. All-Rus. res.-practical conf. "Modern problems of theory and practice of sports medicine and physical rehabilitation"]. Naberezhnye Chelny: KamSAPCST publ., 2009, pp. 278-280.

Corresponding author: leeg86rus@mail.ru

Abstract

The study considers benefits of rehabilitative trainings for beginner racing skier groups as verified by the mental functionality tests. Subject to the study were 30 beginner racing skiers. The tests were performed ante meridiem since the rates are normally the most stable at this time of the day. A variety of mental functionality rating tests were made using the computerised NS-Psychotest.NET system (Neurosoft, Moscow), including the following: simple visual motor response (SVMR) test; tapping test; and response to moving object (RMO) test.

The rehabilitative training system in application to beginner racing skiers included rehabilitation breaks in the regular training session; special daily rehabilitation sessions; and micro-cycle-level rehabilitation sessions. The study data and analyses showed benefits of the new rehabilitative training model in application to the beginner racing skiers as verified by the growth of their working capacity rates, rehabilitation process rates and more efficient competitive performance rates.