Biorhythmological Analysis of Nonspecific Body Adaptability of Swimmers From Different Climatogeographic Regions

Biorhythmological Analysis of Nonspecific Body Adaptability of Swimmers From Different Climatogeographic Regions

ˑ: 

V.V. Apokin, associate professor, Ph.D.                                  
A.A. Povzun, associate professor, Ph.D.
V.A. Rodionov, associate professor, Ph.D.
N.R. Usaeva, postgraduate
Surgut state university of KhMAR-Yugra, Surgut

Key words: biorhythm, chronobiological analysis, nonspecific adaptability, flights, body adaptabilities, ecological factors.

When characterizing the peculiarities of seasonal development of biorhythms of the main body indices of athletes specializing in different sports [10, 9] and reorganization of these rhythms at long-term flights [12, 1, 7, 2], including athletes of different sexes [11, 8], we constantly marked the need to control these changes, as they fully reflect the state of body adaptabilities, the level of which is extremely important for sports result and its growth. That is why the mechanism of adaptation to physical loads has been studied and described in detail and in quantitative and qualitative terms.

This is important also because the state of adaptabilities is increasingly considered as one of the main health criteria. Hence, the question is actual not only for enhancement of athletes’ professional skills, but for preserving athletes’ health as well. In this regard the reduction of body adaptabilities today, to a certain degree, is a new risk factor that demands searching for adequate criteria, primarily for its estimation; trainers should develop new approaches to the training processes, taking into account various factors affecting body adaptabilities. Today, climatogeographic conditions of training have growing importance among those factors [6]. The athlete’s body, reacting to physical loads and adapting to them, is undoubtedly affected by particular ecological conditions of a region where an athlete lives; therefore, trainer should understand how to take into consideration those conditions during the training process, providing enhancement of sport skills, particularly in the case when the climatogeographic conditions are officially considered to be unfavorable and have a detrimental effect on the body adaptabilities, reducing its reserve [10, 9].

The purpose of the study was to estimate changes in the state of body adaptabilities of elite swimmers, residents of different climatogeographic regions.

Materials and methods. In the present study using the same biorhythmological approach we tried to estimate the direct impact of environmental factors on the state of nonspecific adaptability of athletes by comparing the change in their criteria [5], when flying across several time zones in two teams of swimmers who live and train in absolutely different climatogeographic regions and are influenced by completely different environmental factors. The physiological indices of swimmers of the same gender, age group and nationality, ranked masters of sport and higher, living in different regions, were measured. One team consisted of athletes from Surgut and Tyumen district, i.e. from the Extreme North, another one – of athletes from Alma-Ata (south of the Republic of Kazakhstan). Athletes of both of the teams were flying at the same time to the same site of the training camp across 4 time zones in the western direction; they spent 21 days in the camp. The measurements were carried out right before the departure, immediately on arrival to the sports base, at the second week, right before return (after 3 weeks athletes spent outside their geographical regions and time zone), and during three days after the return home. The following chronobiological parameters were measured 4 times a day (at 8, 12, 16 and 20 o’clock): body temperature t (0С), heart rate (HR, bpm), systolic blood pressure (SBP, mmHg), diastolic blood pressure (DBP, mmHg). The results of measurements were used to calculate pulse pressure (PP = SBP - DBP, mmHg), average dynamic pressure [ADP = 0,42 (SBP - DBP) + ADP, mmHg], systolic output [SO = 100+0,5 (SBP - DBP) - 0,6 DBP - 0,6A, ml], where A is age), CO - cardiac output (CO = SO x HR, l/min). The data were subject to the standard mathematical processing. Average daily value (mesor), rhythm amplitude, time of the highest value of function (acrophase) and variation amplitude (chronodesm) were estimated.

Results and discussion. In order to calculate the biorhythmological criteria of nonspecific adaptability, that help to make a long-term forecast of the state of the body [6], average daily curves of changes of acrophases of measured parameters were plotted; then the plots were analyzed for every three days in turn. The following factors were calculated: criterion of assessment of daily curve organization (CO), criterion of stability of the curve structure in serial measurements (CS), criterion of variability (CV). The functional state was estimated by comparing these three criteria, corresponding to CO, CS and CV. At a good adaptability the criterion of the level of organization (CO) varied from 3,2 to 4,0, the criterion of stability (CS) – from 7/9 to 9/9, and the criterion of variability (CV) – from 3 to 4. The results are listed in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Variations of criteria of nonspecific adaptability of cardiovascular indicators of Surgut athletes after flight and during the long-term stay outside their geographical region and time zone

Measurement time

HR

SO

CA

SBP

DBP

ADP

PP

Criterion of the level of organization of daily curve (CO)

Before departure

2.66

3.33

3.0

4.0

4.0

2.66

3.33

3 days

3.33

3.33

3.0

3.33

3.33

3.66

3.0

14 days

2.33

3.33

2.0

4.0

3.33

4.0

3.0

21 days

2.66

3.66

2.0

3.0

4.0

4.0

3.33

After return

2.33

2.0

3.33

2.66

2.33

2.33

3.0

Criterion of curve stability in serial measurements (CS)

Before departure

7/9

7/9

9/9

9/9

9/9

9/9

7/9

3 days

5/9

3/9

5/9

3/9

7/9

5/9

7/9

14 days

6/9

5/9

6/9

3/9

3/9

3/9

3/9

21 days

7/9

5/9

5/9

5/9

3/9

5/9

5/9

After return

9/9

7/9

5/9

5/9

7/9

3/9

3/9

Criterion of rhythm variability (CV)

Before departure

3

3

5

2

2

2

5

3 days

4

2

5

2

2

2

3

14 days

3

2

4

2

2

2

2

21 days

3

2

4

2

2

2

3

After return

3

3

4

2

2

2

3

 

Table 2. Variations of criteria of nonspecific adaptability of cardiovascular parameters of athletes from Alma-Ata after flight and during the long-term stay outside their geographical region and the main time zone

Measurement time

HR

SO

CA

SBP

DBP

ADP

PP

Criterion of the level of organization of daily curve (CO)

Before departure

2.0

2.33

2.66

2.33

2.0

2.66

4.0

3 days

2.66

3.0

3.33

4.0

3.66

3.33

2.33

14 days

3.0

2.66

2.66

2.33

2.33

2.66

1.33

21 days

2.33

3.33

3.0

3.33

3.33

2.66

3.0

After return

1.66

2.66

2.0

3.33

3.33

2.0

2.66

Criterion of curve stability in serial measurements (CS)

Before departure

7/9

5/9

7/9

7/9

7/9

7/9

3/9

3 days

5/9

7/9

5/9

7/9

7/9

7/9

7/9

14 days

9/9

3/9

7/9

5/9

7/9

5/9

5/9

21 days

5/9

3/9

5/9

5/9

5/9

5/9

5/9

After return

7/9

5/9

9/9

7/9

7/9

9/9

9/9

Criterion of rhythm variability (CV)

Before departure

3

2

2

2

2

2

2

3 days

2

2

2

2

2

2

3

14 days

3

2

4

2

2

2

4

21 days

4

2

4

2

2

2

3

After return

3

2

3

2

2

2

2

We have presented the detailed analysis of the state of nonspecific adaptability of Surgut athletes before [2], so here we just mention that the general state of athletes’ adaptabilities seemed satisfactory, despite the reduced parameters characterizing rhythm structure (i.e. signs of severe desynchronosis at least). Moreover, the features of reaction to the time shift indicate a systematic regulatory shift of the hemodynamical load to the vascular system, rather than a reduction of these adaptabilities, which is one of the main training effects observed for elite athletes [4].

The analysis of the nonspecific adaptability of the Alma-Ata team showed, at first glance, that the athletes were subject to severe desynchronosis as well. The CS (parameter characterizing stability of daily rhythm curve) slowly decreased, and by the third week the indices of practically all hemodynamical parameters were unsatisfactory, indicating practically full rhythm disorder. As for Surgut athletes, the CS quickly recovered the initial values on return home. However, in this case the CS reduced gradually, not in the abrupt manner as was observed for the Surgut team. Hence, the main reason is probably no the “severe” desynchronosis that should be seen in the first few days after the flight, and to which, as we can consider from the results, athletes from Alma-Ata were quite resistant.

When estimating the features of rhythm changes in this group in the previous works, we noted [6] two possible explanations of the reaction to flight: either the loads were insignificant for the functional reserve of athletes’ body, or the problems initially present in the rhythm structure that prevent the body from the full use of this reserve.

The analysis of changes of adaptability parameters clarifies the situation. Still before the departure we observed extremely low values of the criterion of the level of organization of the daily curve (CO), and thus the absence of a certain rhythm. And despite the growth of the parameters after flight, evidencing about attempts to activate the adaptive reserve, those values were rather low during the whole period in the training camp. Therefore, the assumption that the time shift was not a significant load for this group is inconsistent; this is also confirmed by the gradual decrease of the CS values mentioned above, meaning that, despite the resistance to the severe phase of desynchronosis, athletes’ body adaptabilities decreased, unfortunately, during the whole period in the training camp. Moreover, considering this criterion, such a situation was continuous, and perhaps chronic. In other words, a stable but weakly pronounced rhythm was marked. The physiological value of sports success in this situation may seem to be too high, taking into account that there was no fast recovery of the CO after return home.

The changes of the criterion of variability confirm these conclusions. As in the analysis of rhythm [6], we observe an increase of CO and HR, and the growth of the former was apparently provided by the latter one, which is not typical for elite athletes. The increase of the value of CV for pulse pressure shows that such a reaction is quite plausible; however, we consider it to be bad for high sport achievements and especially for athlete’s progress.

Nevertheless, we do not affirm that the adaptabilities of athletes from this group have been totally exhausted. The urgent reaction to the flight took place, and it was realized in this group by activating adaptabilities. Moreover, the rhythm stability (characterized by CO) indicates the absence of internal desynchronosis. Hence, this result is likely explained by the high intensity of training and competitive loads the team has had [3], that was functionally displayed in the fatigue development.

Conclusion. Naturally, it is impossible to safely say that this situation is a result of the influence of climatogeographic factors, but when estimating the state of athlete's body adaptabilities a trainer is to always take into account the impact of the factors of the region of residence, since according to the researchers' findings, the result of this effect can be rather significant [6], and under favorable factors the adaptabilities can be even significantly reduced due to incorrect distribution of training loads.

References

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Corresponding author: apokin_vv@mail.ru