Methodological Peculiarities of Elite Cross Country Skiers who Study in University

Фотографии: 

Yu.F. Zolotov, Honored trainer RSFSR
N.P. Gerasimov
N.N. Bykov
Kazan national research technical university named after A.N. Tupolev - KAI, Kazan

Key words: technique, training, development, cross country skiing, exercises, training process, athlete.

The work experience of the physical education department underlies the considered issue on skiing classes. New developments of the methods of the basics of the modern cross country skiing training and dosing of physiological load in textbooks and study guides have arisen in the last decades, but they do not take into account the specifics of activity of students and postgraduates engaged in cross country skiing, stipulated by the complicacy of combining day academic classes and training process.

The modern university physical education curricula do not include the requirements on learning the basics of modern sports training during all years of study using advanced technologies for development of the functional physical status and mastering classic and freestyle skiing technical skills to achieve high results in sport. This scientific research will contribute to it, confirmed by many years of experience of professional training activity in a technical university in the period from 1975 till now.

According to our ideas, trainer should follow the development of functional and physical qualities of cross country skier at all training phases. Analyzing the results of control, he can estimate the strengths and weaknesses of the training system.

The purpose of the study was to characterize the pulse programming technique for elite cross country skiers in preseason and actual season.

Results and discussion. High results in sport can be achieved only in case of existing smooth-running training program for athletes. It represents a combination of methodological basics, forms of organization and training and competitive conditions, correlating with each other in the optimal way based on specific principles and ensuring athlete's top fitness shape for high sports achievements. A cross country skier can be trained most effectively in university conditions in case of following the methodological recommendations:

• If a cross country skier approaches the start not fully recovered (rested), the amount of speed work before the next start should be reduced or single trainings to be replaced by low intensity running (cross-country race) and the use of combined developing and special training exercises.

• To develop speed endurance to pass distance parts ¾ way, i.e. 80-90 % of the competitive intensity in the length and steepness of climbs of the area with the 1,5-3 min rest interval along the path, reduce the rate and speed of movement.

• To vary training sessions using different versions of the variable method combined with a uniform, repetitive, competitive.

• To use trainings for long distances (up to 3,5 km and more) to form a competitive pace on the road, on the relief close to competitive.

• When conducting training sessions in 2-3 training circles it is easier to perform high-speed volume of work on a large training circle.

• After speed or major competitions one is to carry out trainings not intensively (to remove residual nervous and muscle tension) and maintain high physical working capacity.

• After training sessions, and especially after freestyle competitions, one is to focus of the release of muscular tension in the sacrolumbar division, deep muscles and spinal ligaments, joint ligaments, muscles and blood vessel walls throughout the circulatory system (brain - carefully), doing physical, breathing exercises with a deep inhale and exhale and a large range of motion, as well as using methods of autogenous training, yoga system, taking into account different positions of the body and its parts, softness and elasticity of muscles.

In hot weather it is important to use the technique of autogenous training, as it rapidly normalizes the process of thermoregulation. Hang upside down for not more than 1 minute is a good exercise, especially necessary before a training camp in the midlands and highlands.

• cross country skiers should develop their emotional state gradually and learn to control it (mental attitude to trainings, at the start, stressful and emergency situations).

The most important credo of the training process and competitions is formation of athlete’s best traits: reliability, confidence, self-discipline, patience, ability to quick decision making in a changing environment, effectiveness – growth of high sports results.

• During training sessions to develop the speed quality using the repeated-speed method and conditioning - carry out carefully the preparatory part of sports training – warm-up.

• One must use food - warm, cold - in volume training to train the excretory system and prevent a heat stroke due to loop of thermal control of the body, especially mentally unstable athletes, maintaining energy in an athlete's body.

• Seek clarity and discipline when performing the tasks set by team members, regular visits of training sessions to improve the overall health of cross country skiers, achieving high results in both control and major competitions by improving skills and theoretical knowledge from the special literature on the theory of the basics of physical education and in this sport.

• Exercise tolerance in adverse weather conditions and climate, keep up the desire to develop high speed and to train.

• Successfully combine elite sport classes with the educational process, carefully monitor the progress in taking tests and examinations in winter and spring examinations in accordance with the individual training schedule of a student-athlete.

• In the pre-season and actual season strictly adhere to the pulse mode to improve the functional status of the autonomic nervous system, physiological load with an individual approach for each athlete and taking into account the experience of sports classes and classification, functional physical development and anthropometric data of the type of higher nervous system: age characteristics (Tab. 1).

Table 1. Estimated pulse indicator plan according to the method of pulse mode programming to train the body of a cross country skier for the main start of the season

Month (phase)

Initial pulse per 10 s

Maximal pulse per 1 min – mode, bpm

Recovery pulse at rest, 3 tests per 10 s

1

May

12; 11; 10; 9; 8

160-200

999; 988

2

June

999

170-210

888

3

July

888

160-240

877

4

August

777

160-240

776

5

September

766; 666

180-240-250

666

6

October

777; 888

160-200

777; 888

7

November

776; 776

180-220

766; 777

8

December

666; 666

180-240-250

666; 666

9

January

666; 666

170-210

666; 665

10

February

665; 665

170-240

665; 665

11

March

677; 666

160-180

667; 778

12

April

788; 888

120-160

888; 889

 
Skiers’ sports achievements depend on general and special physical, technical, tactical and psychological preparedness and moral and volitional qualities. All these qualities are determined by the functionalities of various body systems and are influenced by sports training, special environment, inborn abilities and properties, lability of nervous processes of a specific cross country skier.

Conclusion. To improve the results of cross country skiers trainer should introduce new elements to the plan of the year cycle (plan trainings for a specific distance and individual competitions in plain conditions, and especially in the midlands and organizing training camps in the highlands of Mount Elbrus, at the altitude of 4200 - 4400 m above sea level.

Volume and intensity of training loads are of particular importance, including:

1) means of overall and spiral training;                                                       

2) amount of cyclic load;

3) individual specifics of training.

References

  1. Matveev, L.P. Theory and methodology of physical culture. The introduction into the subject: textbook for colleges of physical culture / L.P. Matveev. 3rd ed. – St.Petersburg: Lan', 2003. – 160 P. (In Russian)
  2. Sports pride of Tatarstan [Electronic resource]. – URL: http://mdmst.tatarstan.ru/rus/info.php?id=93606 (In Russian)

Author’s contacts: bruno333@yandex.ru