E.P. Maksachuk, doctoral student
Moscow state academy of physical culture, Malakhovka, the Moscow region
Key words: young athlete, sports education, synergetic, culturological, personality-activity approaches, components of sports education.
Introduction. Young athlete’s personality development results from socialization, education and self-development. Nowadays new personal requirements are being made to succeed, along with eternal values. Sports activity is not an exclusion. The country needs young people with developed intellectual-spiritual and physical qualities, containing sociocultural values, understanding their professional mission in the society. Unfortunately, nowadays a shortage of qualified personnel is being marked and shallow knowledge and malpractice are more common.
Programs of sports-centered education are being implemented within comprehensive schools on the basis of sports clubs and sections (V.K. Balsevich, L.I. Lubysheva, V.A. Romanovich), along with the programs developed on the basis of Olympic education (V.I. Stolyarov, S.Yu. Barinov). Specialized children’s sport schools (SCSS) need the courseware to be updated.
The purpose of the study was to show the process of development of personal sports culture via sports education.
Materials and methods. The main method in this study was the method of mass public opinion poll. The information was collected among pupils of SCSS using a standardized questionnaire. In all, 587 respondents aged 8, 12, 14 and 16 years from SCSS of Moscow and the Moscow region took part in it.
Results and discussion. The study showed that on the average 73,7% of young athletes miss training sessions because of bad mood; only 22.2% treat sports activity as a method of all-round personal development; 49.7 % believe their knowledge in the field of sport is inadequate and 71.8 % could not answer to the question one should respect an opponent in competitions.
Therefore, it is necessary to keep away from one-sided approach to the training process, when the emphasis is primarily on improving motor skills and abilities, because young athlete is a forming personality.
Effectiveness of personality formation via sports activity depends on proper organization of the educational process. It is important to create the conditions for the comfort of a young athlete, his moral and ethical development, creation of mental wellbeing. Sports education involves the combination of educational technologies via sport, organization of extra-training activity, management of educational process, interaction with parents of young athletes.
According to the idea of anthropocentrism, which considers the value of a man as a personality as its object, a young athlete as the basic component of sports education and sports team as a broader concept, and trainer's personality is considered in close contact with it. The success of personality formation of the engaged ones depends on the conditions of the educational process via sport.
The structure of sports education is a relationship of the basic elements: goals and content, methods and means, as well as results achieved. The driving forces and the logic of the educational process are determined by its basic, fundamental characteristics: dialectical, contradictory, focused, systematic, variable and optimistic nature.
Sports education is one of the activities for human transformation. Sports education finds its specificity in defining trainer’s goals and positions in relation to an athlete. In addition, the unity of psychological and social essence of the trainee should be noted, as well as his/her age and living conditions. The function of educational influence can be implemented in different ways, at different levels with multiple objectives. For example, a person himself can purposefully educate himself, managing his psychological state, behavior and activity. In this case, we can talk about self-education. Thus, the choice of educational goals and the ways to achieve them depends on athlete's position in regard to himself.
In the organization of sports education it is advisable to use synergetic, culturological and personality-activity approaches.
The choice of the culturological approach is stipulated by the objective relations of a young athlete with culture as a system of values. The concept "culture" has a huge number of values in different areas of human life. It characterizes the specific aspect of human life, which is determined by the dual nature of culture as both social and individual activity. Axiological culture ("axios" - value) - value assessment - is a combination of works of human activity, the value of which is generally recognized within certain social systems, this combination serves the spiritual basis and a sign for this social organization. The axiological world view appears only with arising reflective subject, his expectations and requirements to this world are the source of its reflection. As a result of this attitude the world doubles: value perception of the objective reality exists together with it. Athlete can know himself, his deepest goals and aspirations via value perception. Thus, pupils of SCSS will not only develop on the basis of culture they have mastered, but also add something absolutely new to it. Therefore, mastering of culture as a system of values is, firstly, development of an athlete himself and, secondly, his formation as a creative personality.
Synergetics is a modern theory of self-organizing systems based on the principles of the world integrity, common patterns of development of all levels of material and spiritual organization; nonlinearity (diversity, alternative nature), deep relationship of chaos and order, chance and necessity. The synergetic approach helps to consider the organization of sports education as a single process, in which training and self-training, education and self-education are organically combined, forming links between the elements of the considered structure.
The personality-activity approach in sports education comes from the ideas of the unity of personality and its activity, i.e. transformation of the subject of activity - young athlete. The personality orientation of the activity approach includes the following concepts: "personal sense", “inner potential", "self-actualization", " self-determination”, "subjective personality-traits" etc. The personality-activity approach brings genuine priorities to the sphere of internal activity of a forming personality, formation of the needs, motives, interests, ideals and beliefs.
Due to the stipulated above pedagogical approaches one can not only improve physical condition, but also form the personal sports culture of young athletes, based on the positive value attitude to sport, within which standards, values and cultural norms, associated with sport, are interiorized by a young athlete, i.e. have become a part of his inner world.
Sports education can be efficient in case of motivation conditioned by teambuilding teaching situations, creative tasks, considered athlete’s individual achievements, acquired knowledge in the field of sport.
The cognitive component of sports education includes the sections of Olympic, valeological, anti-doping and the basics of professional sports education and self-education.
Along with conditioning, special conditioning, technical, tactical and competitive training, the psychomotor component includes relaxation methods and ideomotor training.
The activity-ethic component presupposes value orientations in sport and actions in compliance with the Olympic ethics.
It can be concluded that all the stipulated components of sports education contribute to the development of personal sports culture, so that young athletes could feel confident in various situations, keeping to their own life stance.
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