A.A. Opletin, associate professor, Ph.D.
Perm national research polytechnic university, Perm
Key words: self-development, personality, models of self-development, formation of self-development competence, physical culture.
Introduction. With the accession of Russia to the Bologna process and bringing education to conformity with the European standard, the education turns to the new paradigm of the competency building approach. The aim of education is to train a person, who will be socially and professionally competent, creative, physically and mentally healthy, mobile and tolerant, ready for self-development at any phase of the life path. Competence combines the intelligence and skill components of education, the concept of competence contains the ideology of interpreting the content of "results-oriented" education .
The formation of pupils’, students’ skills within domestic pedagogics often corresponds to the level of competence, but without the use of that term. (I.A. Zimniaya , I.S. Yakimanskaya , P.Ya. Gal’perin , N.F. Talyzina  et al). In order to develop the competency building approach not only the reliance on the international experience, adapted to the circumstances and needs of Russia, but also a thorough study of the domestic experience of implementation of the personality- and activity-related approach in training and education are required. According to the idea of personality- and activity-related approach, based on the development and self-development of the subject of this activity, taking into account the students' and teachers' point of view (V.L. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, S.L. Rubinstein, B.G. Ananiev et al.), where a personality is regarded as a subject of activity; the personality, formed during activities and communication with other people, determines the nature of these activities and training. Formation of the self-development competence of the students in personality-centered educational system is considered as a part of holistic development of the personality, due to the target motivation of self-improvement and mastering the techniques of personal self-regulation from the sufficiently active position of a subject in the field of self-construction of the personality . Specialist's competency is a set of abilities, skills and personal traits necessary for a successful professional activity in a particular field (V.A. Slastenin, A.K. Markov, A.M. Novikov, L.I. Kobysheva, N.V. Kuzmina, S.N. Chistyakova, et al.). So, the competence is the personality’s readiness to perform the activity of different kind. Competency is an ability to implement that readiness in practice. The process of selection and formation of base (key, universal, endurable) competencies is the number one task for the update of the content of education. Key competency has an integrative nature, because it includes a number of homogeneous or closely related skills and knowledge, relevant to broad areas of culture and activities (information, legal, etc.).
The key competencies use three basic criteria:
1) The ability to act autonomously: to defend own rights and interests, to act responsibly, to plan and organize personal plans, to acquire knowledge independently from different sources;
2) The ability to work with different types of information: diagrams, symbols, graphics, texts, tables, etc., to think critically about the information received and apply it to expand own knowledge;
3) Be able to work in a group: to establish good relationships, to resolve conflicts, etc.
The competency building approach presupposes fundamental reconstruction of the content and organization of physical education based on the system integration of educational and extracurricular activity on creating an open and heterogenous physical education and sports environment of an educational institution . Competence formation is a process that actually never ends. Competencies are found in skills, within learning process we should pay maximum attention to the formation of knowledge and skills, without which it is impossible to generate a competence.
Competency (latin competentia - complicated symptom complex of qualities and state of a personality, integrating the knowledge in some field) characterizes not only the level of knowledge, skills and education of the students in the field of physical culture, but also reflects their readiness to implement active sports activity in accordance with the initial parameters, their ability to analyze deeply and choose the programs of motor activity from a larger number of options - the personlity-centered approach, which is the most appropriate and effective way to solve motor tasks. Broadly the competency promotes personal fulfillment, self-improvement, self-development, determining the place in society [5, p.16]. The specificity of the self-development competence formation in our study is determined by such a systematizing type of activity as physical culture, in which, along with physical development and health promotion, in our version, the issues of education of the mind, will, emotions and socio-moral orientations are solved. Such kind of self-development competence acts as a volitional process of qualitative change in personality. When integrating in oneself the important processes of self-construction of own personality (self-knowledge, self-consciousness, self-designing and self-programming) the self-development acts as a holistic complex, which, in case of emotional and volitional personal activities, provides, during regulation, the active self-actualization in a chosen profession and, on the whole, in life process in society .
Problem statement: One of the principal directions of the university department of physical culture is designing and introducing into a teaching process innovative and efficient recreational systems, programs and educational technologies, facilitating health promotion intended to form self-development competences both in the field of physical culture and professional activity of students as prospective specialists.
The purpose of the study was to design and introduce the self-development competence into the university educational process by means of physical culture.
The research methods involved: I.V. Mikhaylov's method of determination of constitutional features; G.L. Afanasenko's method of health level determination; Spielberg-Hanin method of evaluation of mental and emotional stress; evaluation of the level of special knowledge in the field of physical culture according to P.E. program; willingness for self-development; the attitude to physical culture and self-development was evaluated according to the pedagogical observation map (by A.A. Opletin); ability for self-development (by V.I. Andreyev); stability of moral choice (by A.S. Novoselova); level of self-developing activity, based on the arbitrary psychic self-regulation (A.S. Novoselova, A.A. Opletin, L.A. Titova); students’ self-development competence was determined according to the specially designed pedagogical map of A.A. Opletin.
We have summarized the theoretical foundations of personality- and activity-related approach (L.S. Vygotsky, A.N. Leontiev, P.Ya. Galperin, N.F. Talyzina etc.), the regulations on the structure of physical culture and sports activity (G.G. Natalov, P.F. Lesgaft, N.N. Vizitey, V.K. Balsevich, L.N. Lubysheva, V.S. Makeeva, I.V. Manzheley, etc.), as well as ideas on key and subject competencies (E.F. Zeyer, A.V. Hutorskoy, I.A. Zimniaya, etc.). It is based on the structure of educational sports competencies of I.V. Manzheley [4, p. 13], L.A. Titova [4, 8] as a two-level structure, which foundation consists of social, informational, self-educational and communicative key (through) competencies and subject competencies. Based on the researches in the field of competency building approach and our numerous studies and observations on this matter we distinguish the holistic course of physical training of five self-development models for the competency formation in this area.
- Health-improving and personality-related model of self-development;
- Health-improving and moral model of self-development;
- Health-improving and social model of self-development;
- Professional and personality-related model of self-development;
- Interactive-sports model of self-development.
All models are interrelated. In the context of university education, within the modernization of the P. E. program, these models can be implemented either step-by-step, or selectively based on previously formed personal competencies. At the same time, a complex task of general self-development of personality as psychological readiness to perform duties in the future professional activity while being a physically fit and spiritually enriched specialist, is being formed. All five models are based on general pedagogical principles for competence formation: humanization, activity, general orientation, conformity with nature and culture; and each model has its specific principles.
The principles important for the health-improving and personality-related model of self-development are principles of physical culture harmonization, principle of psychophysical individual abilities, adaptation principle, optimism principle, principle of trust in the system of physical culture with belief in oneself.
The specific principles of the model of moral self-development are: personal responsibility for own actions and for everything that is happening in the presence of this person, stability of social and moral convictions, free choice, principle of moral stability, constant self-control, focus on social values.
The principles important for the model of social self-development are: social activity in compliance with the legal norms of society, principle of culture of international relations, principle of peaceableness, principle of freedom restricted by social norms.
The model of professional and personality-related self-development is characterized by the following principles: willingness for self-expression and self-assertion in chosen profession and continuous improvement in this area, principle of creative potential development.
The principles important for the model of interactive sports self-development are: voluntariness, available sport pedagogical and cultural environment, openness, interaction, the maximum self-expression, cooperation and patriotism.
Any kind of differentiation deepens the holistic understanding of a phenomenon, enriching its conceptual essence. Modelling of the phenomena specifies purposefulness, revealing the individual aspects of each model, which are not always apparent in the general definition. The need to construct professional pedagogical models makes physical culture more important as an educational discipline. At the same time there are marked trends of humanization, differentiation and activity, with the emphasis on social processes, relevant to the goals and objectives of scientific and social development, that stipulate the necessity of new approaches, re-considering the accumulated material. New trends are based on the core technologies, important for further studies (S.I. Arkhangel’sky, E.P. Belozerov, E.V. Bondarevskaya, A.A. Verbitsky, V.I. Zagvyazinsky, I.F. Isaev, E.A. Klimov, L.N. Makarov, A.K. Markova, N.D. Nikandrov, E.G. Silaeva, V.A. Slastenin, P.F. Talyzin, O.K. Tikhomirov, V.D. Shadrinov, E.N. Shiyanov et al.).
We provide a brief description of each pedagogical model system. It should be noted that they are primarily aimed at health-improvement, health protection and promotion. However, in health-improving and personality-related model of self-development this direction is the main and perspective. Personality self-development in this model has a health-improving orientation that helps to form a healthy way of life of a specialist. At the first year of studies, this model is primary due to important reasons. According to our studies, the number of students, attributed to a special medical group due to health condition, is increasing from year to year.
University entrants have an average level of physical development and only about a half of them are able to adapt to socio-psychological and social loads of the intensive university educational program without damaging their mental and physical health. At this phase it is impossible to talk about training of moral stability and social competence formation. The personality health-improvement of self-development of students and the formation of personal self-development competence is the priority of this model in student’s professional training. The students, training according to the first personality-related health-improving model, are engaged in health shaping and promotion, development of their physical qualities and mastering of motor skills and abilities. Serious attention is paid to the formation of emotional satisfaction from physical activity. The tasks of healthy ways of life are being solved gradually with the focus on future occupation. All of that has made us develop a program of a personality self-development by means of physical culture, aimed at health protection and formation. The new program of this model differs by awakening interest to oneself and own health, training self-trust, development of personal potential, introduction of some unconventional methods of stimulation of physical education occupations. With the inclusion of the Universal warm-up system (A.A. Opletin ) in the educational process, the tasks being solved along with physical loads are education of the will, persistence, desire to believe in oneself, self-determination and self-assertion in improving the quality of self-development to settle personal health-improving tasks during professional growth. Based on the received data, the personality-centered individual program is being formed, aimed at strengthening and maintaining a high level of physical health. Physical state is determined by the indicators of anthropometry, functional state of cardiovascular, respiratory and nervous systems, motor fitness and other characteristics. The constitutional features are determined using the method of I.V. Mikhaylov, health level – using the G.L. Afanasenko's method, mental and emotional stress are evaluated using the Spielberg-Hanin method.
The issues of physical and moral development were solved mainly by means of physical culture within the model of the pedagogical system of social self-development, it was necessary to focus on training a student not only as a future specialist, but as a citizen of the Homeland. The principles of tolerance, peace, mercy and interethnic international communications based on the humanity principles were brought to the forefront during the implementation of this model. Physical education classes with the condition of personality self-development were supplemented with training of an ability to focus in a complex social situation. The strive for self-development is constantly connected with the choice of not only moral, but also social values. Physical exercises are aimed at finding adequate solutions to understand difficult social situations, which a future specialist may face, showing tolerance, especially required in sports activity. The respect for morals and laws of the society, which a young man lives in, is a credo of every citizen, and it's being brought up from early childhood. These qualities have a paramount importance for a future specialist and personality in general during physical culture aimed at self-development. In critical situations, which are inevitable in real life, a physically and morally developed person, who has knowledge, skills and techniques of physical culture, should behave adequate to common rules. It is one of the main tasks of self-development of a personality. It is one of the priorities of self-development by means of physical culture. The social orientation of an individual in a civil society is the peak level of manifestation of good manners. Adhering to own convictions. So, all sports achievements of a person are social achievements. Professional orientation is formed by the value-related pedagogical process, organized in a university.
The model of professional and personality-related self-development is characterized by the principle of willingness to self-expression and self-assertion in a chosen profession, along with constant self-improvement in developing the personal creative potential in this area. The differentiation in a chosen profession is the leading principle of this model. The above mentioned tasks are implemented in the process of physical training with an emphasis on self-development taking into account the features of the chosen specialization.
The model of interactive sports self-development. In the works of Russian scientists A.O. Bodalev and A.A. Kabanov and many foreign authors the concept of career is treated not as job promotion, but as a process of implementation of a person and his capabilities in professional activity (E.V. Kiseleva) . The task of this model is training a specialist, who knows numerous areas of professional life, relying on his own capabilities, for the purpose of professional development and career advancement in the field of physical culture and art. The interactive sports model of personality self-development primarily solves the current self-development tasks of the educational system of the P.E. discipline in the holistic university process of training a specialist in a particular area (health-improvement, social and moral development, professional orientation). At the same time, there are students with outstanding abilities or those willing to develop them in any direction within physical education, engaged in the extracurricular sports sections in a university (if there are any) or at other places, combining it with basic university classes for mastering the chosen specialization. Proceeding from the theoretical and practical analysis, university helps such students if they achieve good results in sport.
On the one hand, these models are an example to other models of physical culture, as students, engaged in this model, pay much attention to physical culture and, in case of sports achievements, make the university and the country proud of them. On the other hand, they act as an ideal of personality and sports self-improvement.
Students engaged in this model usually have their personal trainers and an individual plan of training sessions, while they study the theoretical course of physical culture together with all students. In the field of physical education it is a guiding line for self-development and self-improvement by means of physical culture.
A map of pedagogical observation was designed in the study to determine the competence level of personality self-development (A.A. Opletin). Competence levels are divided into: relatively low, average-sufficient, high, "superexcellent". Physical education teachers; group; leading trainers in the specialization; practical training supervisors were involved in determining the level of competence of students’ self-development (in compliance with the map of pedagogical observation).
Results: at the first year most of the students - 71% - had a relatively low level of self-development competence, 27 % - average-sufficient level and only 2% of students showed a high level, the "superexcellent" level was not marked. The second year of studies: the relatively low level of self-development competence was dominant - 59 %, average-sufficient level - 38 % of students, high level remained the same - 2%, "superexcellent" level - 1%. Third year: 29 % of students reached relatively low level of self-development competence, 59 % - average-sufficient, 10% - high level, 2% - "superexcellent" level.
Conclusions. According to the literature analysis, the issue of self-development competence formation by means of physical culture is poorly studied, which stimulated the development and practical implementation of models and levels of students’ personality self-development in physical culture to identify the competence formation in this field of knowledge.
Proceeding from the studies, formation of the students’ self-development competence – “superexcellent level”, can be fixed only after they graduate from a university and get a professional job in less than a year of practice. This level is more evident only in this case, as proved by the authors’ two-year researches with graduates during organized seminars, conferences and meetings.
In the study physical culture has been proved to be one of the leading disciplines of the integral university's educational process, being one of priority directions in training competent, physically strong and healthy specialists with the skills of self-control in nonstandard situations, striving for continuous self-development and self-improvement of their personality, conditioning personal competence development and career advancement.
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