Basketball terminology: unification challenges

Master of Sports Peulic Jovica1
V.V. Yadreev1
S.V. Semenov1
1M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk

Keywords: basketball, basketball terms and definitions, communication, understanding, players, coaches.

Background. Success in the modern basketball game is known to depend on the teamwork quality secured by perfect understanding and cooperation of the players and coaches [9] – that need to be put on a sound verbal communication basis with certain standardization of phrases and signals, particularly when the teams and coaches are bi- or multilingual that is not unusual for the elite sports nowadays [2]. Prior to 1980ies the national basketball leagues were dominated by the locals speaking their mother languages. Since then the national teams have opened up to increasingly encourage inflows of foreign contractors in the competitive performance improvement efforts – and this was the reason for the growing influence of a few nations and clubs of origin of such players and experts on the national turfs on the one hand and on the basketball game popularity the world over on the other hand. Since 1990ies virtually no one elite club and nation could progress in isolation from the flows of foreign players and coaches.

Objective of the study was to overview the modern multilingual basketball glossary.

Methods and structure of the study. We analyzed for the purposes of the study the available Russian, Serbian and foreign literature on the subject [7, 1, 4].

Results and discussion. Trainings are known to be greatly facilitated when the players and coaches freely communicate in English or the regional languages (when, e.g. the coach of a Russian team is Serbian and many words are fairly close and understandable) [11]. It should be noted that the sport has developed a glossary of standard terms and definitions for the key basketball skills [6]: see Table 1.

Table 1. Key basketball skills defining terms

English

Serbian

Russian

Dribble

Вођењелопте

Ведение мяча

Dribble

Дриблинг

Дриблинг

Passing and catching

Додавање и хватање

Передача и ловля

Jumpshot

Скок шут

Бросок с прыжком

Unmarking

Демаркирање

Открываться

Stopping

Наскок

Останавливаться

Penetration

Продор

Прорыв

Pivot foot

Пивот нога

Oпорная нога

Screen

Блок

Заслон (стенка)

Given in Table 2 are the terms for the key basketball elements.

Table 2. Terms for the key basketball elements

English

Serbian

Russian

Pivot player

Пивотиграч

Основной игрок

Penetration line

Линијапродора

Линия проникновения

Helpline

Линијапомоћи

Линия помощи

Doubling

Удвајање

Удвоение

Player substitution

Преузимање

Смена

Direction

Усмерење

Направление

Turnover

Изгубљеналопта

Потери мяча

Baseline

Чеоналинија

Лицевая линия

Sideline

Бочналинија

Боковая линия

These terms define the specific moves and game goals the player is expected to attain, and that is why they are so important, for example doubling that means the couple defense with two defenders control the same attacker; substitution when defenders substitute the attackers; direction meaning the defender’s action to force the attacker to the line when the latter loses the ball (turnover) etc.

Table 3. The key terms with reference to the basketball ruls

English

Serbian

Russian

Playing time

Време за игру

Игровое время

Status of the ball

Статус лопте

Статус мяча

Ball control

Контролалопте

Контроль мяча

Аlternating possession

Наизменичанпосед

Поочередное владение

Shooting player

Играч у акцијишутирања

Игрок в процессе броска

Throw-in

Убацивање

Сбрасывание

Time-out

Тиме-аут

Тайм-аут

Substitution

Замена

Замена

Violations

Прекршаји

Нарушения

Player out-of-bounds and ball out-of-bounds

Играч и лоптаванграничнихлинија

Игрок в ауте и мяч в ауте

Travelling

Кораци

Пробежка

Closely guarded player

Блискочуваниграч

Плотноопекаемый игрок

Personal foul

Лична грешка

Персональный фол

Double foul

Обострана грешка

Обоюдный фол

Technical foul

Техничка грешка

Технический фол

Unsportsmanlike foul

Неспортска грешка

Неспортивный фол

Disqualifyingfoul

Дисквалификујућа грешка

Дисквалифицирующий фол

Fighting

Туча

Драка

Free throws

Слободнабацања

Штрафные броски

Тhe score sheet

Записник

Протокол

Given in Table 3 are the key terms of the valid basketball rules [8] that every player must perfectly know to understand the ref’s verdict in every game situation. And given in Table 4 are the game situation-specific terms.

Table 4. Situation-specific terms

English

Serbian

Russian

Airball

 

Ситуация, когда мяч летит после броска и не касается кольца и щита

Alley-oop

 

Ситуация, когда игрок забивает сверху и получает мяч в воздухе

And one

 

Ситуация, когда игрок фолит и игрок забивает

Backdoor

 

Ситуация, когда игрок нападения без мяча убегает за спину игрока защиты

Dunk

 

Ситуация, когда игрок забивает сверху

Mismatch

 

Ситуация, когда высокий игрок остается с низким в ситуации 1:1, и наоборот

Tip-in

 

Ситуация, когда игрок подбора касается мяча и забивает

Switch

 

Смена игрока в защите 1:1

Pick and roll

 

Действие двух игроков, когда высокий игрок ставит заслон низкому и открывается под кольцом

Pick and pop

 

Действие двух игроков, когда высокий игрок ставит заслон низкому и открывается наверху (остается на штрафной линии)

Transition

 

Движение игроков из защиты в нападение, и наоборот

Tripledouble

 

Ситуация, когда у игрока в конце игры есть больше, чем десять очков, передач и подборов

No-look-pass

 

Действие игрока с мячом, когда он передает мяч в одну сторону, а смотрит в другую сторону

Box and one

 

Тип защиты, когда один игрок играет в защиту 1:1, а остальные стоят в зоне

Coast to coast

 

Быстрое ведение мяча между лицевыми линиями

Lay up

Полагање

Бросок, когда ладонь находится под мячом

Face to face

 

Ситуация 1:1

It is traditional for the modern basketball game to widely apply English terms for the situation-specific applications as they are clear, definite and universal enough and easily understood by every player, coach, spectator and analyst.

Conclusion. It is emphasized that perfect understanding and cooperation in a basketball team is paramount for success and that is the reason why the language barriers in communication of the teammates and coaches need to be totally removed to avoid unnecessary psychological tension and stressors, otherwise the game cannot be fully harmonized and efficient. That is the reason why the modern elite basketball teams need to be at least fully bilingual i.e. fluent in English and their national languages.

References

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Corresponding author: jovicapeulic@yahoo.com

Abstract

Success in the modern basketball game is known to depend on the teamwork quality secured by perfect understanding and cooperation of the players and coaches – that need to be put on a sound verbal communication basis with certain standardization of the key phrases and signals, particularly when the teams and coaches are bi- or multilingual that is not unusual for the elite sports nowadays. It may be stated with confidence that the modern basketball has worked out its own communication toolkit (glossary) to secure perfect mutual understanding in the sport community (with its players, coaches, referees and supporters) facilitated by the common terms and meanings to define every game element and goal and efficiently design and manage the teamwork for success. Objective of the study was to overview the modern multilingual basketball glossary. The authors analyzed for the purposes of the study the available Russian, Serbian and foreign literature on the subject to summarize the universal international terms and meanings that refer to the key elements of the modern basketball game plus those with reference to the basketball rules – critical for understanding of every referees’ verdict on every game issue and action. It is emphasized that perfect understanding and cooperation in a basketball team is paramount for success and this is the reason why the language barriers in communication of the teammates and coaches need to be totally removed to avoid unnecessary psychological tension and stressors, otherwise the game cannot be fully harmonized and efficient. That is the reason why the modern elite basketball teams need to be at least fully bilingual i.e. fluent in English and national languages.