Individual speed control models for swimmers

PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Rodionov1
PhD M.A. Rodionova1
E.K. Inake1
1Surgut State University, Surgut

Keywords: swimming, endurance, control, intensity zone, individual speed control model.

Background. Training process control and management may be efficient enough only when the coach knows exactly what the effects of one or another training tool on the trainee’s body are. It is quite common to classify a training cycle into the workload intensity zones with the relevant heart rates and specific energy systems mobilization rates. Most of the national experts prefer the workload control by speed, with the individual best competitive speeds used as reference points for progress.
The individual speed control model evaluation is an indirect method based on the existent correlation between the competitive result, load intensity and physiological indicators. As a result, we can not only find the optimal values of various indicators, but also study the patterns of their changes in athletes of different sexes, ages, and specializations, who use different swimming techniques and have different skill levels.
Objective of the study was to consider theoretical grounds for and rate benefits of the individual speed control model for swimmers.
Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the 16-17 year old sport excellence group trainees from Surgut State University, Neftyanik CYORSS and some other sport schools in Surgut (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Area Yugra) qualified Candidate Masters of Sport and split up into Experimental (EG) and Reference (RG) Groups. The RG trainings were controlled by the traditional intensity zoning and HR test method; and the EG trainings were driven by the individual speed control models.
Results and discussion. Intensity is a key element in achieving a high level of physical working capacity, so training load parameters in swimming are classified by the intensity zones. All swimmers, as a rule, measure their pulse. Heart rate monitors are a good aid here, but not all athletes are able to determine their individual intensity zone. Despite the constant progress in the training methods and achievements of sports medicine, HR remains the most efficient indicator of the swimmer’s condition, though it doesn’t make it possible to determine with certainty whether the training task is performed effectively and for the benefit [3].
The simplest and most accessible indicator in terms of operational control over the effectiveness of the training process is dosing of physical loads by speed. Knowing the competitive speed rate, we can easily determine the training speed for each athlete individually. However, many years of practical research in the field of sports swimming show that the recommendations proposed by the scientists working in this direction (S.M. Gordon, G.I. Petrovich) do not cover one indicator. Thus, the estimated results for each intensity zone are set so high that it gets impossible for swimmers to achieve them. This made it possible to suggest that fatigue, which signals the biochemical shifts in the body, was not taken into account when determining the model characteristics for the athletes [1, 2, 5].
Individual speed control modeling is an indirect method based on the existent correlation between the competitive result, load intensity and physiological indicators. Changes caused by the training process are closely related to a complex of physiological shifts that occur in response to physical activity. The use of individual tables based on the swimmers’ speed models helps individualize the training loads depending on the functional state of each athlete, control and analyze the process of training and competitive results based on the information received [4].
The validity of the above theses is clearly illustrated by the results of the 2-year study. We determined the swimming speed at the distance segments with an emphasis on the intensity zones and HR values only. As a result, we obtained the results presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Special physical fitness indices in RG swimmers

Indicators

Before the experiment

(n = 10), x± σ

After the experiment

 (n = 10), x± σ

T-criterion

Significance level, p

Increase by, %

3,000 m

2135.6 (35.35.6) ± 12.84

2129.08(35.29.08)± 13.09

1.1

≥0.05

0.3

4×400 m

262.6 (4.22.6)

± 1.32

261.4(4.21.4)± 1.21

2

≥0.05

0.4

8×200 m (Total)

1024.4 (17.04.4) ± 6.84

1017.8(16.59.8) ±6.33

2.2

≥0.05

0.6

16×50 m

29.3 ± 0.15

29.1 ± 0.15

2

≥0.05

0.6

 

The greatest changes were observed in the 8×200 m (Total) and 16×50 m tests, where the percentage increased by 0.6%. In the 4×400 m and 3,000 m tests, the results increased only by 0.4 and 0.3%, respectively.

The results of the individual speed control model evaluation, which was based on the intensity zoning, swimming speed at a particular distance segment, and HR values, were completely different. The swimming speed was calculated based on the competitive result the athlete planned to demonstrate (Table 2).
The highest percent increase was observed in the 3,000 m test - 1.6% and 16×50 m test - 1.3%. In the 4×400 m and 8×200 m (Total) tests, there were insignificant improvements - 0.8 and 0.6%, respectively.

Table 2. Special physical fitness indices in EG swimmers

Indicators

Before the experiment

(n = 10), x± σ

After the experiment

 (n = 10), x± σ

T-criterion

Significance level, p

Increase by, %

3,000 m

2129.08(35.29.08)± 13.09

2094.2(34.54.2)± 11.8

6.5

≤ 0.05

1.6

4×400 m

261.4(4.21.4)± 1.21

259.07(4.19.07) ± 1.27

6.1

≤ 0.05

0.8

8×200 m

(Total)

1017.8(16.57.8)± 6.33

1010.8(16.50.8) ± 6.82

2.4

≤ 0.05

0.6

16×50 m

29.1 ± 0.15

28.7 ± 0.19

5.1

≤ 0.05

1.3

 

Individualization of the athletic training process by modeling individual speed parameters through mathematical calculations made it possible to ensure a rapid increase in the 50 m freestyle swimming test rates within constant parameters of the best result, which was maintained throughout the experiment and confirmed by the mathematical statistical data.
In 2018/2019, we continued researching this subject and conducted a replicate experiment. All the above was confirmed by the special physical fitness test rates. The results of testing of the special physical fitness in the RG and EG subjects after the experiment are as follows (Table 3):

Table 3. Comparative analysis of special physical fitness test rates of RG and EG (after experiment)

Indicators

CG (n = 10), x± σ

EG (n = 10), x± σ

T-criterion

Significance level, р

Increase by, %

3,000 m

2110.58(35.10.58)± 8.05

2085.7(34.45.7)± 12.1

7.0

≤ 0.05

1.2

4×400 m

260.71(4.20.71)± 2.35

258.87(4.18.87) ± 1.47

2.8

≤ 0.05

0.7

8×200 m (Total)

1020.5(17.00.5) ± 6.43

1009.6(16.49.6) ± 5.97

4.1

≤ 0.05

1.1

16×50 m

29.3 ± 0.2

29.0 ± 0.14

3.9

≤ 0.05

1

 

The highest percent increase was observed in the 3,000 m test – 1.2% and 8×200 m (Total) test – 1.1%. There was an insignificant improvement of the results of the 16×50 m test – 1% and 4×400 m test – 0.7%.
The special physical fitness tests showed positive changes in both groups. However, the RG indicators improved insignificantly as compared to the EG. This is due to the fact that Platonov’s method (control by the intensity zoning and HR test method used in swimming) does not allow to effectively individualize the process of training of swimmers and reveal their potential.
Conclusions. Comparative analysis of the special physical fitness test rates of both groups showed the intensity zoning method being more sensitive and efficient for the training workload control purposes.

References

  1. Gordon S.M. Trenirovka v tsiklicheskikh vidakh sporta na osnove zakonomernostey sootnosheniy mezhdu trenirovochnymi uprazhneniyami i ikh effektom [Training in cyclic sports based on relationship between exercises and their effect]. Doct. diss. abstr. (Hab.). M.: Fizkultura i sport publ,, 1986. 48 p.
  2. Gordon S.M. Osnovy upravleniya trenirovkoy sportsmena [Athletic training management fundamentals]. Coach's teaching aid. M.: SCOLIPE publ., 1981. 30 p.
  3. Konovalov V.N. Optimizatsiya upravleniya sportivnoy trenirovkoy v vidakh sporta s preimushchestvennym proyavleniem vynoslivosti [Optimizing athletic training management in endurance sports]. SibGAFK publ.. M., 2001. 48 p.
  4. Makarenko L.P. Sorevnovatelnaya deyatelnost vysokokvalifitsirovannykh plovtsov-stayerov [Competitive activity of elite stayer swimmers]. Study guide. M.: Fizkultura i sport publ., 2003. 138 p.
  5. Petrovich G.I., Prilutskiy N.A., Paramonova S.S. Osobennosti podgotovki plovtsov na razlichnykh etapakh mnogoletney trenirovki: metod. rekomendatsii [Swimmers training at various stages of long-term training: method. recommendations]. Minsk: Minsk tip proekt publ., 2004. 23 p.

Corresponding author: 79048796033@ya.ru

Abstract
Training process control and management may be efficient enough only when the coach knows exactly what the effects of one or another training tool on the trainee’s body are. It is quite common to classify a training cycle into the workload intensity zones with the relevant heart rates and specific energy systems mobilization rates. Most of the national experts prefer the workload control by speed, with the individual best competitive speeds used as reference points for progress. Objective of the study was to consider theoretical grounds for and rate benefits of the individual speed control model for swimmers. Sampled for the study were the 16-17 year old sport excellence group trainees from Surgut State University, Neftyanik CYORSS and some other sport schools in Surgut (Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Yugra Area) qualified Candidate Masters of Sport and split up into Experimental (EG) and Reference (RG) Groups. The RG trainings were controlled by the traditional intensity zoning and HR test method; and the EG trainings were driven by the individual speed control models. Comparative analysis of the special physical fitness test rates of both groups showed the intensity zoning method being more sensitive and efficient for the training workload control purposes.