Physical development and physical fitness rates as markers of effectiveness of children's motor activity

Dr.Biol. T.F. Abramova1
PhD T.M. Nikitina1
A.V. Polfuntikova1
D.N. Pukhov2
1Federal Scientific Center for Physical Culture and Sports, Moscow
2St. Petersburg Scientific Research Institute of Physical Culture, St. Petersburg

Objective of the study was to determine the physical development and physical fitness rates in preschoolers and primary school children as markers of effectiveness of their motor activity.
Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 365 boys aged 6-10 years with different levels of motor activity: 150 non-sporting children (hereinafter referred to as NS); 106 footballers; 109 wrestlers with different sports experience (from 8 months to 1.5 years). The number of children in the age groups was as follows: 25 to 39 - among the non-sporting subjects; 20 to 27 - among the footballers, and 20 to 29 - among the wrestlers. The tests were run with the consent of the subjects' parents.
The testing program was developed with due regard to the relevant GTO Complex standards and physical development and physical fitness tests for pre-school institutions and general education schools.
The methods applied were as follows: anthropometry, caliperometry, physiometry, pulsometry, pedagogical observations, and graphical analysis.
Results of the study and conclusions. Based on the comparative analysis of the physical development and physical fitness rates, we were able to identify the physical qualities not duly considered in physical education programs: wrist strength and flexibility throughout the age period under review, to a less degree - leg strength and agility (between 9 and 10 years of age). Athletic training programs require increased attention to the development of flexibility, in football - to the development of wrist strength as an indicator of the overall physical fitness between 7 and 9 years of age.

Keywords: physical fitness, physical development, wrestlers, non-sporting footballers, 6-10 year-old, development rate.

References

  1. Abramova T.F., Nikitina T.M., Kochetkova N.I. Labilnye komponenty massy tela – kriterii obshchey fizicheskoy podgotovlennosti i kontrolya tekushchey i dolgovremennoy adaptatsii k trenirovochnym nagruzkam [Labile body weight components - criteria for general physical fitness and control of current and long-term adaptation to training loads]. Method. recommendations. M.: Skyprint publ., 2013. 132 p.
  2. Abramova T.F., Nikitina T.M., Polfuntikova A.V. et al. Vliyanie sistematicheskikh zanyatiy sportom na fizicheskoe razvitie i fizicheskuyu podgotovlennost detey 6-10 let [Influence of systematic sports on physical development and physical fitness of 6-10 year-olds]. Vestnik Moskovskogo universiteta. Seriya 23: Antropologiya. 2019. No. 3. pp. 5-14.
  3. Bal’sevich V.K. Ontokineziologya cheloveka [Human Ontokinesiology]. M.: Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury, 2000. 275 p.
  4. Lyakh V.I., Zdanevich A.A. Kompleksnaya programma fizicheskogo vospitaniya uchashchikhsya 1-11 klassov [Comprehensive physical education program for 1-11 grade students]. M.: Prosveshchenie publ., 2004. 56 p.
  5. Serdyukovskoy G.N. [ed.] Organizatsiya meditsinskogo kontrolya za razvitiem i zdorovyem doshkolnikov i shkolnikov na osnove massovykh skrining-testov i ikh ozdorovlenie v usloviyakh detskogo sada, shkoly [Organization of medical control over development and health of preschoolers and schoolchildren on basis of mass screening tests and their rehabilitation in kindergarten, school]. M., 1995. 142 p.
  6. Prikaz Mincporta Rossii ot 12.02.2019 # 90 «Ob utverzhdenii gosudarstvenykh trebovaniy Vserossiyskogo fizkulturno-sportivnogo kompleksa ”Gotov k trudu i oborone”» (GTO) [Order of the Ministry of Sports of Russia dated 12.02.2019 No. 90 “On approval of state requirements of Russian physical culture and sports complex ‘Ready for Labor and Defense’] [Electronic resource] Available at: https://minjust.consultant.ru/documents/ 42248?items =1&page=5 (date of access: 05.02.2020).
  7. Romanovskiy Yu.M., Stepanova N.V., Chernavskiy D.S. Chto takoe matematicheskaya biofizika [Meaning of mathematical biophysics]. M.: Prosveshchenie publ., 1971. 136 p.
  8. Federalnye standarty sportivnoy podgotovki [Federal standards for sports training] [Electronic resource] Available at: https://www.minsport.gov.ru/sport/podgotovka/82/5502/ (date of access – 07.02.2020).
  9. Khvatskaya E.E., Latysheva N.E. Problema ranney spetsializatsii (professionalizatsii) [Problem of early specialization (professionalization)]. Vestnik Pskovskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Ser. Psikhologo-pedagogicheskie nauki. 2015. no. 1. pp. 194-200.