Role of early physical activity in developing children’s intelligence at different stages of ontogenesis

PhD, Associate Professor V.S. Merenkova1
Dr. Biol., Professor E.I. Nikolaeva1, 2
1Bunin Yelets State University, YelSU, Yelets
2The Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg

Objective of the study was to conduct a theoretical analysis of the role of physical activity in shaping cognitive functions in children at different stages of ontogenesis: from birth to adolescence.
Methods and structure of the study. A theoretical analysis of the Russian and foreign literary sources was carried out.
Results of the study and conclusions. When studying the internal picture of health of the children and their parents, particular attention is drawn to the fact that in their efforts to improve the children's physical activity, the parents often do not have the opportunity to go to the gym for various reasons. This, on the one hand, contributes to the development in children of early intelligence, however, it does not develop the habit to plan physical loads in adulthood.
The analysis of the data on the role of vestibular system of the 4-6 year-old children in terms of kindergarten shows that daily physical activities for a year improve the quality of sensorimotor integration and inhibitory processes as part of executive functions, as well as increase the level of intelligence assessed by the J. Raven's test. Theoretical data are given to explain the relationship between the level of physical activity and the level of development of higher mental functions. It is shown that the formation of human as the species Homo Sapiens has been associated with a lifestyle that requires high physical loads daily.
Physical activity as a component of sensorimotor integration is particularly important at the early stages of ontogenesis, when a navigation system is formed and a child’s perception of objective reality is constructed. 
Consequently, it is important to use such team games as football and volleyball, which contribute to the development of schoolchildren's vestibular system and sensorimotor integration.

Keywords: children, physical activity, cognitive functions, intelligence, sensorimotor integration, vestibular system.

References

  1. Aires E.J. Rebenok i sensornaya integratsiya. Ponimanie skrytykh problem razvitiya [Child and sensory integration. Understanding hidden problems of development]. M.: Terevinf, 2017. 272 p.
  2. Efimova V.L., Nikolaeva E.I., Ogorodnikova E.A., Ryabchikova N.A. Vozmozhnost plasticheskikh perestroek i integrativnoy deyatelnosti mozga pri regulyatsii polozheniya tela v prostranstve u detey 5-15 let s trudnostyami obucheniya posle dvigatelno-ritmicheskogo treninga [Possibility of plastic rearrangements and integrative activity of brain when regulating body position in space in 5-15 year-olds with learning difficulties after motor-rhythmic training]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta. 2018. No.8 (3). pp. 155-166.
  3. Efimova V.L., Efimov O.I., Nikolaeva E.I., Lysova I.A. Osobennosti akusticheskikh stvolovykh vyzvannykh potentsialov u detey s retseptivnymi yazykovymi narusheniyami [Features of acoustic stem evoked potentials in children with receptive language impairment]. Voprosy psikhologii. 2019. No. 6. pp. 99-109.
  4. Levashov O.V., Boravova A.I., Ponomareva N.V., Fokin V.F Vozdeystvie fizicheskikh i mentalnykh uprazhneniy na zdorove cheloveka i ego kognitivnye funktsii [Effect of physical and mental exercises on human health and its cognitive functions]. Asimmetriya. 2017. v. 11 (3). pp. 78-87.
  5. Nikolaeva E.I., Isayko A.A., Fedoruk A.S. Svyaz kharakteristik rabochey pamyati i tormoznogo kontrolya s osobennostyu blizhayshego okruzheniya doshkolnika i ego vklyuchennostyu v fizicheskuyu aktivnost [Relationship of working memory and inhibitory control characteristics with specific immediate environment of preschooler and his inclusion in physical activity]. Kompleksnye issledovaniya detstva.2019. v. 1. No. 2. pp. 14-26.
  6. Piaget J. Psikhologiya intellekta [Psychology of Intelligence]. St. Petersburg: Piter publ., 2004.192 p.
  7. Razumnikova O.M., Nikolaeva E.I. Vozrastnye osobennosti tormoznogo kontrolya i proaktivnaya interferentsiya pri zapominanii zritelnoy informatsii [Age-related features of inhibitory control and proactive interference when storing visual information]. Voprosy psikhologii. 2019. No. 2. pp. 124-132.
  8. ChieffiS, MessinaG, VillanoI, MessinaA, EspositoM, MondaV, ValenzanoA, MoscatelliF, EspositoT, CarotenutoM, ViggianoA, CibelliGandMondaM (2017)/ ExerciseInfluenceonHippocampalFunction: PossibleInvolvementofOrexin-A. Front. Physiol. 8:85. doi: 10.3389/fphys.2017.00085.
  9. Grassman A., Alves M., SantosGalduróz R. (2014). Cognitive Benefits of Acute Physical Exercise in Children With ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders. V.21. № 5. P. 367-371.doi.org/10.1155/2019/6950605.
  10. Kempermann G., Song H., Gage F. (2015). Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus. Cold Spring HarbPerspect Biol. 2015 Sep 1;7 (9):a018812. doi: 10.1101/cshperspect.a018812.