Physical education background formation in Russian military educational establishments in second half of XIX century in terms of military reform

Dr.Hab., Associate Professor M.P. Starodubtsev
St. Petersburg Military Order of Zhukov Institute of National Guard Troops of the Russian Federation, St. Petersburg

Objective of the study was to identify the peculiarities of formation of physical education background in the Russian military educational establishments in the second half of the XIX century in historical perspective.
Results of the study and conclusions. The author emphasizes that, in the modern sense, physical education is a structural component of the educational process aimed to improve students’ physical strength and health, form their health habits and healthy lifestyle skills in order to harmoniously develop their personality. According to the author, the historical necessity to create an orderly physical education management system in conditions of a military establishment is preceded by the formation of the Russian regular army and the first military educational establishments that require an increase of the level of physical fitness of soldiers and officers in order to ensure the Russian army’s combat strength.
The author successively examines the periods of military reform, paying particular attention to the contribution to the development of the theory and practice of physical education of the outstanding statesmen of that era, owing to whom the pedagogical science was enriched with knowledge about the goals, objectives, forms and methods of physical education.
The author concluded that by the end of the XIX century, Russia has developed quite an orderly system of physical education based on progressive restructuring in the field of military command and education. This system was based on the principles of accessibility, consistency, and systematic implementation of physical training of military personnel both in existing military units and in military educational institutions.

Keywords: physical education, physical training, military command system, military education system, military education reform, theory and practice of physical education, military physical education.

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