Dr.Sc.Hist., Professor I.V. Maslova1
PhD, Associate Professor I.E. Krapotkina1
PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Martynova2
1Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University, Elabuga
2Kuban State University of Physical Education, Sport and Tourism, Krasnodar
Objective of the study was to determine the specific impact of eating patterns on the human physical development both from the historical perspective and at present.
Methods and structure of the study. The authors used a comparative historical analysis to identify and compare medieval eating patterns in Europe and Russia. An ascertaining experiment was conducted to determine the nutritional habits of modern Russians and their dependence on the level of motor activity. Sampled for the questionnaire survey were 20-30 and 45-60 year-old individuals (n=96 including 40 youngsters and 56 middle-aged people) residing in Krasnodar, Naberezhny Chelny, Elabuga. The method of descriptive statistics was applied to analyse the data obtained.
Results and conclusions. The authors identified the effects of man's eating pattern on his physical development, both from the historical perspective and at present. The balanced meal composition depends on individual characteristics that were not taken into account in the medieval period, which, combined with the lack of dependence between the eating pattern and level of motor activity, led to early physical depreciation. The analysis of the results of the questionnaire survey of modern Russians showed that their eating patterns have changed significantly and are increasingly seen as a way to support physical health. This manifests itself in the individualization of eating patterns, expansion of the diet, "soft" attitude to fasts, introduction of a balanced diet, desire to consider the motor activity indicators.
Keywords: eating patterns, medieval period, nutrition, food culture, physical health.
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