Senior teacher N.I. Ismailova1
PhD, associate Professor A.R. Khasanova2
1Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University, Elabuga
2Naberezhnye Chelny State Pedagogical University, Naberezhnye Chelny
Objective of the study was to analyze motor disorders in the children with the autism spectrum disorders affecting both mutual coordination of sensorimotor activity and potential for physical development.
Methods and structure of the study. The study involved the 5-6 year-old children with the autism spectrum disorders (n=30), attending rehabilitation centre for physically disabled children and adolescents "Astra" in Elabuga municipal district of the Republic of Tatarstan.
For the study purposes, we applied the method "Protocol of Neuropsychological Assessment" by J.M. Glozman, in particular, observation and controlled tests. During observations, attention was paid to the rhythmic incoherence of movements, discordant muscle tone in the arms and legs, the nature of spatial orientation, reactions to bodily contacts, and the presence or absence of interest and activity in the game. This method made it possible to identify children with different types of functional sensorimotor asymmetry. The controlled tests method consisted of the tests for praxis of the finger position, oral praxis, dynamic praxis, tests for rhythmic patterns and reciprocal hand coordination. The controlled tests used helped assess the potential of arbitrary regulation in the children, coherence/ incoherence of sensorimotor coordination, and the children's ability to make cyclic movements (walking, running).
Results and discussion. Based on the data obtained, the children were distributed according to their functional sensorimotor asymmetry type: 40% of left-handers and 60% of right-handers. It was found that the right-handed children demonstrated better results in the rhythmic patterns and reciprocal hand coordination tests, and therefore had a higher potential for developing arbitrary regulation of movements and consistency of rhythmic actions. The left-handed children were more accurate in the tests for praxis of finger position and thus the quickest when performing combined finger movements.
Conclusion. The findings will enable associate and rehabilitation specialists to appropriately classify and adjust incoherence in the sensorimotor activities of children with the autism spectrum disorders and to eliminate their social disintegration.
Keywords: autism spectrum disorders, muscle tone, sensorimotor activity, exercises, observation.
- Akhmetzyanova A.I., Fedorova V.D. Ispolzovanie metoda prikladnogo analiza povedeniya v razvitii adaptivnykh navyikov u detey s rasstroystvami autisticheskogo spektra [Applied behavior analysis for development of adaptive skills in children with autism spectrum disorders]. Obrazovanie i samorazvitie. 2015. no. 1. pp. 63-68.
- Lushchekina E.A., Strelets V.B. Rasstroystva autisticheskogo spektra. Obzor sovremennykh eksperimentalnykh issledovaniy [Autism Spectrum Disorders. Review of modern experimental studies]. Zhurnal vysshey nervnoy deyatelnosti im. I.P. Pavlova. 2014. v. 64. no. 6. pp. 587.
- Nikolaeva E.I., Borisenkova E.Yu. Sravnenie raznykh sposobov otsenki profilya funktsionalnoy sensomotornoy asimmetrii u doshkolnikov [Comparison of different functional sensorimotor asymmetry profile rating methods in preschool children]. Asimmetriya. 2008. v. 2. No. 1. Pp. 32-39.
- Staroverova M.S. Variativny podkhod k psikhologicheskomu soprovozhdeniyu detey s rasstroystvami autisticheskogo spektra [Variable approach to psychological support of children with autism spectrum disorders]. Vestnik obrazovaniya i nauki. Pedagogika. Psihologiya. Meditsina. 2014. no. 4. pp. 67-71.