1Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Faculty of Physical Education and Health in Biała Podlaska, Poland
Objective of the research was to study the effects of two different types of verbal guidance in the process of learning a complex gymnastic routine known as round-off – double salto backward tucked during beam dismount.
Маterial and methods. Skilled female artistic gymnasts (n = 16) participated in the study. Their average indices of height, body mass and age (х ± δ) were as follows: 157.5 ± 2.85 сm; 51 ± 2.25 kg; 20 ± 2.35 years, respectively. Based on biomechanical measurements, the key elements of sports technique of double salto backward tucked during beam dismount were determined. An educational experiment was carried out to assess the efficiency of learning and refining double salto backward tucked during beam dismount using two types of verbal guidance. The subjects (n = 16) were randomly divided into Experimental (n = 8) and Control (n = 8) groups. In the process of learning, female athletes from the experimental group received immediate verbal information about faults committed in the key elements of the mastered motor task, whereas those from the Control Group obtained the same type of information about all the errors made during the performance of round-off – double salto backward tucked during beam dismount.
Results and conclusions. Statistically significant differences were revealed between average results of Experimental and Control Groups (F(2, 28) = 12.530, p < 0.05) in all the tests in favour of Experimental group. Differences between average results of each group both before and after the experiment as well as in the retention test were statistically significant (p <0.05).
The obtained results demonstrate that a wealth of immediate verbal information conveyed by the coach about technical faults committed by female gymnasts negatively affects the process of motor task learning. At the same time, verbal information passed on to the gymnast by the coach concerning errors in the key elements of sports technique (critical signals) contributes to a more efficient solution of the motor task. The limitation of corrective actions only to the key elements of the motor task, which are designed to trigger a sequence of motor tasks, produces significantly better learning outcomes in a complex task.
Keywords: Female gymnasts, feedback, kinematic structure, sports technique, exercise phases, focal elements.
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