Bioimpedance body composition tests in golfers’ annual training cycle

Postgraduate E.F. Baymukhametova1
Associate Professor, Dr.Biol. A.V. Nenasheva1
Associate Professor, PhD A.S. Aminov1
1South Ural State University (National Research University), Chelyabinsk

Keywords: body composition, fat/ muscular mass, golf, training process.

Introduction. Sports performance largely depends on the body composition of athletes. Changes in the fat/ muscular mass (body weight labile components) under the influence of training loads reflect the focus of the processes of body adaptation and predominance of athletes’ energy supply, which is used by trainers to optimize the pre-season training mode [1-3].

Objective of the study was to identify the dynamics and peculiarities of changes in body composition of golfers throughout the annual training cycle.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were 13-14 year-old boys (n=15) and girls (n=15) trained in golf by the "Physical education" Program for general education institutions. Implementation of the Program at the primary general education stage is carried out in accordance with the Federal State Educational Standard for primary education system (by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation № 373 as of October 6, 2009) from 2011/2012 academic year; at the compulsory education stage - according to FSES (by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of RF № 1887 as of December 17, 2010) from 2015/2016 academic year; at the secondary (complete) general education stage - according to FSES (by order of the Ministry of Education and Science of RF № 413 as of May 17, 2012) from 2020/2021 academic year.

Body composition of the boys and girls was tested by Tanita BC-418 MA Body Composition Analyzer designed based on the innovative technology of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA). Physical development of the sample was estimated by the body/ limb fat mass indices and total water level, with the study data processed by a standard statistical toolkit.

Results and discussion. The analysis results of and dynamics of changes in the body composition indicators in the 13-14 year-old boys and girls trained by the Program throughout the annual training cycle are presented in Table 1 hereunder. As the table shows, at the beginning of the experiment, the mean values ​​of body length and weight of the boys were 167.00±2.93 cm and 60.02±3.86 kg, of the girls - 158.13±1.54 cm and 55.59±1.36 kg, respectively. The research results showed that the following indicators were significantly higher in the girls than in the boys: fat percentage in the body, fat percentage in the right and left legs, fat percentage in the right and left arms, fat percentage in the trunk (p<0.05-0.001); total fat mass, fat mass of the right leg, fat mass of the trunk (p<0.01-0.001).

Table 1. Analysis and dynamics of changes in body composition of boys and girls trained in golf by the “Physical culture” program, M±m

Parameters

Baseline

In 6 months

In 12 months

boys

girls

boys

girls

boys

girls

Body length, cm

167.00±2.93

158.13±1.54*

169.40±2.62

160.87±1.23**

171.40±2.16

162.07±1.46**

Body weight, kg

60.02±3.86

55.59±1.36

59.09±3.92

57.49±1.18

65.15±4.46

57.62±3.28

BMI, kg/m2

21.23±1.03

22.23±0.61

20.40±1.06

22.23±0.66

22.01±1.22

21.92±0.82

Fat % in the body

18.17±0.87

28.21±0.80***

16.17±1.55

27.60±0.82

15.89±1.73

27.20±1.47***

Fat mass, kg

11.39±1.18

16.55±0.81**

10.05±1.47

16.14±0.80**

9.75±1.88

16.05±1.85**

Body weight without fat, kg

48.64±2.69

41.17±1.26*

49.05±2.46

41.39±0.66**

51.40±3.00

41.58±1.55**

Total body water, %

35.63±1.97

27.35±0.77**

35.92±1.79

30.23±0.49**^^

37.63±2.20

30.45±1.13**

Fat % in the right leg

21.25±0.92

32.71±0.65***

19.12±1.53

32.64±0.82

18.00±1.70

32.42±1.28

Fat mass of the right leg, kg

2.59±0.31

3.45±0.15*

2.26±0.32

3.40±0.16**

2.02±0.41

3.11±0.37

Mass of the right lag without fat, kg

9.05±0.60

6.60±0.19**

9.05±0.49

6.94±0.10***

9.35±0.66

7.13±0.30**

Muscle mass of the right leg, kg

8.61±1.93

6.20±0.19

8.59±0.45

6.59±0.09

9. 07±0.63

6.92±0.29*** (0.05)

Fat % in the left leg

21.75±0.98

33.09±0.76***

19.51±1.49

33.01±0.95

13.67±1.76 (0.001)

28.81±1.22 ^^

Fat mass of the left leg, kg

2.57±0.31

3.15±0.16

2.25±0.32

3.11±0.18**

2.03±0.42

3.00±0.34 ^^

Mass of the left leg without fat, kg

8.75±0.58

6.11±0.20***

8.79±0.47

6.71±0.11^^

9.00±0.63

6.83±0.30**

Muscle mass of the left leg, kg

8.32±0.54

5.90±0.16***

8.34±0.45

6.35±0.10^^

8.65±0.59

6.85±0.28** ^^

Fat % in the right arm

25.46±1.15

37.13±0.87***

23.16±1.90

35.75±0.74

21.96±1.85

33.64±1.78***

Fat mass of the right arm, kg

0.80±0.06

0.85±0.06

0.72±0.08

0.77±0.04**

0.60±0.09

0.63±0.11

Mass of the right arm without fat, kg

2.30±0.15

1.54±0.05***

2.39±0.14

1.66±0.04

2.49±0.16

1.71±0.08

Muscle mass of the right arm, kg

2.16±0.15

1.46±0.05***

2.23±0.12

1.55±0.04

2.44±0.16

1.69±0.07 ^^

Fat % in the left arm

26.84±0.91

40.33±0.98***

24.27±1.63

38.16±0.83

22.41±1.77 ^

37.13±2.15***

Fat mass of the left arm, kg

0.89±0.09

1.03±0.12

0.79±0.09

1.10±0.05**

0.61±0.11 ^

0.95±0.16

Mass of the left arm without fat, kg

2.34±0.16

1.67±0.05**

2.40±0.13

1.73±0.05

2.53±0.16

1.77±0.09***

Muscle mass of the left arm, kg

2.19±0.15

1.54±0.05***

2.26±0.12

1.62±0.04

2.39±0.16

1.75±0.09** ^

Fat % in the trunk

14.16±3.53

23.17±0.88*

12.38±1.56

21.85±0.86

11.06±1.88

19.87±1.57**

Fat mass of the trunk, kg

4.59±0.48

7.49±0.39***

4.03±0.66

6.73±0.40**

3.81±0.89

6.02±0.89 ^^

Mass of the trunk without fat, kg

26.23±1.22

22.71±0.59*

26.49±1.24

23.78±0.29*

28.04±1.36

24.15±0.77*

Muscle mass of the trunk, kg

25.25±1.17

21.77±0.63*

25.70±1.19

22.69±0.26*

27.99±1.31

24.10±0.73**^

Note. * –  p<0.05; **p<0.01; ***p<0.001 – statistically significant differences between the indicators in the boys and girls, ^ –  p<0.05; ^^p<0.01 –  comparison of the baseline values in the boys and girls in 6 and 12 months.

The following indicators were found to be statistically significantly higher in the boys: total body water (p<0.01); body weight without fat, mass of the right and left legs without fat, mass of the right and left arms without fat, mass of the trunk without fat, muscle mass of the left leg, muscle mass of the right and left arms, and muscle mass of the trunk (p<0.05-0.001).

As seen from the table, there are statistically significant differences between the body length indicators in the examined boys and girls 6 and 12 months into the study (p<0.01). In 6 months, we detected a significant predominance of the total fat mass, fat mass of the right and left legs, fat mass of the right and left arms, fat mass of the trunk (p<0.05) in the girls versus the boys, who were found to have significantly higher indicators of mass of the trunk without fat, muscle mass of the trunk, body weight without fat (p<0.05-0.01) and total body water (p<0.01) for the same period.

The analysis of body composition 12 months into the "Physical education" program revealed that the following indicators increased statistically significantly in the girls as compared to the boys: body weight without fat (p<0.01); fat percentage in the trunk and body, in the right and left arms (p<0.01-0.001). For the same period, the boys were found to have a statistically significant increase in the following indicators: body weight without fat, mass of the right and left legs without fat, muscle mass of the right and left legs, mass of the left arm without fat, muscle mass of the left arm, mass of the trunk without fat, muscle mass of the trunk (p<0.05-0.001); total body water (p<0.01)

The analysis of the data obtained revealed a statistically significant decrease in the fat percentage (p<0.05) and fat mass of the left arm (p<0.05) in the examined male golfers versus the baseline data, that may be interpreted as indicative of the golf trainings being beneficial for the athletes’ body composition. As seen from the table, in 6 months of training, the girls demonstrated a significant increase in the mass of the left leg without fat and muscle mass of the left leg (p<0.01), total body water (p<0.01). We also observed a gradual increase in the muscular mass in the girls 12 months into the study (p<0.05-0.01), while their fat mass decreased statistically significantly (p<0.01).

Conclusion. The study of the golfers’ body enabled to provide a more comprehensive assessment of their activity mode, as well as the dynamics of their recovery. Knowledge of the changes in their body composition, that characterize the focus and intensity of the oxidation-reduction processes, can help substantiate the selection of appropriate physical exercises. The analysis of the golfers’ body composition shows that with increasing sport skills the fat component of their body weight decreases, while their muscular mass increases.

References

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  2. Shepilov A.O., Nenasheva A.V., Shevtsov A.V., Latyushin Yu.V., Izarovskaia I.V. Control of Morphofunctional and Metabolic State in Young Swimmers. Human. Sport. Medicine, 2018, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 60–73. (in Russ.) DOI: 10.14529/hsm180105
  3. Batueva A., Erlikh V., Pashnina A. Influence of different types of circuit training on the functional status and anthropometric parameters in young women with obesity. Minerva Ortop Traumatol, 2018; 69 (Suppl. 1, al no. 3, pp: 86-9. DOI: 10.23736/S0394-3410.17.03857-7).

Corresponding author: baimukhametovaef@susu.ru

Abstract

The study analyzes benefits of the bioimpedance body composition tests for the 13-14 year-old golfers’ of both sexes under the physical education curricula. Body composition was tested by Tanita BC-418 MA Body Composition Analyzer designed based on the innovative technology of measurement of impedance (electrical resistance) of the body. Physical development of the sample was estimated by the body/ limb fat mass indices and total water level, with the study data processed by a standard statistical toolkit.

The study data and analyses showed a significant gender-unspecific inverse correlation between the fat mass and muscular mass over the annual training cycle – that may be interpreted as indicative of the golf trainings being beneficial for the body composition.  The study data demonstrate benefits of the bioimpedance body composition tests in golfers’ annual training cycle as they make it possible to estimate the athletes’ health condition and physical fitness which is very helpful for the training process design and management purposes.