Associate Professor, PhD A.A. Jalilov1
Dr.Hab. V.F. Balashova1
Associate Professor, PhD A.A. Podlubnaya1
1Togliatti State University, Togliatti
Keywords: spatial and temporal position rating criteria, kicking technique, dynamic characteristics, factorial structure.
Background. The modern kickboxing sport theory is still in need of a comprehensive kickboxing skill dynamics, time and pace rating analysis, since the national and foreign reference literature on the subject gives rather limited data on the kicking techniques including the movement biomechanics. The modern coaching practices give little if any attention to the body kicking leg movement elements and their sequencing logics from the biomechanics viewpoint – and this was the reason for us to make an attempt of such analysis.
Objective of the study was to analyze some outstanding issues of the kicking leg movement biomechanics using a wide range of mathematical/ computer processing tools to produce a biomechanical model for the body kicking leg movement profiling purposes.
Methods and structure of the study. We used a mathematical/ computer processing toolkit for a comprehensive analysis of the kickboxing movement elements, dynamics, time and pace. The movement biomechanics were studied using a joint ankle dummy to record accelerations of the thigh, shin and foot mass centers on a sagittal plane. In addition, two accelerometers were fixed on the tested athletes’ joint ankles to simultaneously record every element movement dynamics, process the data flow by the application software toolkit developed for these purposes and print out the strain logs for analyses. Sampled for the tests were 12 high-ranking national kickboxers including 4 Masters of Sport and 8 Candidate Masters of Sport. The study was run in 2016-17 in Boyevye Perchatky [Fight Gloves] Sport Club in Togliatti city.
Study findings and discussion. Based on the body kick profiling analysis, we found the most informative biomechanical criteria to rate a kicking skill and worked out a kick profiling factorial model that gives the means to analyze a kicking sequence using the following key biomechanical factors.
Factor one covers the following two rates: the acceleration gradient plus the body kick time i.e. the whole muscle extension and propulsion movement process, with Кс=0.872 (р<0.01); the factor weight rate estimated at 88.4%; and the factor effect referred to herein as the ‘movement reactivity’.
Factor two (Кс=0.839; р<0.01) covers the following three rates: phase time moment; maximal acceleration of the kicking elements; and the maximal kick speed at the contact point, with the factor weight rate estimated at 70.3 %; and the factor effect referred herein as the ‘kick pacing efficiency’.
Factor three (Кс=0.787; р<0.01) covers the body kicking leg elements coordination and the extension movement amplitude, with the factor weight rate estimated at 61.9%. The factor rates the starting position efficiency since it is critical for the movement coordination, spacing and pacing and, hence, success of the kick. Our study data in this aspect were found to agree with findings of some other studies [1-4].
The biomechanical model is characterized by the contribution of two factors: thus, we called the first one, with Кс=0.869 (p<0.01) and Kd=79.9%, a factor that determines the kicking action pattern with an emphasis on its reactive force. It covers the following rates: force of the take-off leg extensor muscles, magnitude of the kicking leg reactive force when affected by the factor, and extension movement amplitude of the kicking leg. The weight rate of the second factor is estimated at Kd=63.2% and interpreted as spatial and temporal characteristics of individual body part movements, as a factor of mutual coordination of individual kicking leg segments during the propulsion movement Kc=0.843 (p<0.01). It includes the time and amplitude of flexion/ extension of the hip and ankle joints of the kicking leg, effects of different angles and speed of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments.
The obtained experimental data enabled to reveal some significant regularities in the propulsion movement profiling for individual segments of the kicking leg and establish the degree of effectiveness of biomechanical model upon the "systemic structural approach" criterion.
The first type of propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments, subject to the structure criterion, is characterized by the contribution of two distinct factors: 1st - determining the criteria for the dynamic structure of movement of individual kicking leg segments, adequate spatial and temporal characteristics of interaction of individual kicking leg segments; 2nd - determining spatial positioning during the starting movement, i.e. angular and linear characteristics. The first factor covers, so to speak, two subgroups of signs: temporal and dynamic characteristics of movement, where the criteria with the highest number of maximum correlations is the core of the model and characterizes the reactive force of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments. The contribution of each group of criteria to the effect of the identified factor on the immediacy of propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments is 0.881 in terms of the aggregate correlation coefficient for the temporal (p<0.01) and dynamic (p<0.01) characteristics.
The determination coefficients equaled 78.4 and 59.0%, respectively. The group of criteria separated on the axis of the biomechanical model of propulsion movement structure in individual kicking leg segments can be interpreted as the ability to coordinate the movements of individual kicking leg segments with the opponent’s active actions, with due regard to the temporal and spatial characteristics.
The role of the second factor extends mainly to the effectiveness of the kickboxer's immediate response to coordinated start of the athlete’s counteraction. While the first factor covers mainly the ability to coordinate actions of individual body parts in space and time and structure them from the biomechanical viewpoint, the role of the second factor, which covers two criteria relating to the amplitude-linear characteristics of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments, determines the athlete’s immediate response (Kc=0.965; p<0.01).
The data obtained indicate that the structure of the kickboxers’ immediate response to kicking actions are due to the biomechanical criteria that determine the starting position efficiency (geometry) (Kd=93.1).
Such organization of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments allows the kickboxer to optimize his kicking movements with respect to the structural properties of individual body parts in extraordinary situations when immediate execution of actions are required.
The second type of propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments, which are also subject to the structure criterion, is characterized by the tendency to preserve the "linear dependence" in the biomechanical model, which indicates a comparative independence of the studied criteria.
Compliance of the biomechanical model for movement technique for the first level of tasks and this type of propulsive movement indicates the identity of the chosen management strategy and correction of own actions. The requirements to preserve the amplitude accuracy of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments on the first level form the basis for the systemic structural action task. The same problem is solved when anticipating the spatial and temporal characteristics of the enemy’s counteractions. This, apparently, can be interpreted as an identical structural form and systemic organization of the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments.
The greatest number of maximum correlations is typical of the criterion which is identical to the amplitude and magnitude of the kicking leg extension angle during the propulsion movement of individual body parts, which also testifies to the impact of the factor of starting position efficiency on the immediacy of the kickboxers’ response (Кс=0.428; p<0.05; Кd=18.3%).
When assessing the effectiveness of body propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments by the body kick time, the greatest aggregate weight was found to be carried out by three criteria that characterize the coordination structure of the kicking leg, thigh, shin and foot moves (Kc=0.861; p<0.01; Kd=74.1%). This indicates the following: in the biomechanical aspect, systemic structural decision-making depends on how accurately the kickboxer chooses the moment to start the kicking movement; to strike with the kicking leg and when, at what point in time to complete the reciprocating kicking movement; when and how to start and efficiently use the muscle stiffing action during the propulsion movement of individual kicking leg segments dominated by the reactive force creation action; how efficiently and effectively he can use the transfer of energy from the proximal segments of the kicking leg to the distal ones and vice versa (thighs - shins - feet) during both reciprocating and rotating actions.
Conclusion. Identification of the key biomechanical factors/ criteria in the kicking action structure that determine the motor task solving effectiveness can be seen as an argument in favor of organization of motor synergies within the system of management of reciprocating kicking movements of individual distal limb segments.
- Jalilov A.A., Balashova V.F. Biomekhanicheskie kharakteristiki napadayushchego udara v kikboksinge [Biomechanical characteristics of kickboxing offensive technique]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2016, no. 2, pp. 66-68.
- Jalilov Al.A., Jalilov Ar.A., Alexandrov Yu.M. Biomekhanicheskie aspekty vizualnoy otsenki tekhniki udarnykh dvizheniy v kikboksinge [Biomechanical Aspects of Visual Evaluation of Technique of Striking Actions in Kickboxing]. Fizicheskaya kultura: vospitanie, obrazovanie, trenirovka, no. 4, 2014, pp. 17-19.
- Zatsiorskiy V.M. Sportivnaya metrologiya [Sports metrology. Textbook for institutes of physical culture]. Moscow: Fizicheskaya kultura i sport publ., 1982, 252 p..
- Zatsiorskiy V.M. Fizicheskie kachestva sportsmena: osnovy teorii i metodiki vospitaniya [Athlete's physical qualities: fundamentals of theory and methods of development]. Sovetskiy sport publ., 2009, 200 p.
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The growing competitiveness in the modern kickboxing sport urges the sport specialists look for new ways to improve the training systems, and many of them give a special attention to the elementary kicking leg movement biomechanics analyses ranked among the key training process improvement options. It should be mentioned that the elementary kicking leg movement biomechanics are considered increasingly topical by the sport specialists since an individual progress in the kickboxing sport largely depends on how efficient is the skill mastering process with due consideration for the movement biomechanics within the relevant systemic knowledgebase. It means that every sport specialist needs a good knowledge of the sport-specific techniques and their building logics ratable by the relevant execution quality rating criteria.
The modern national and foreign reference literature on the subject still gives little if any consideration to the elementary kicking leg movement biomechanics in kickboxing on the whole and body kicks in particular.
The study was intended to analyze some outstanding issues of the kicking leg movement biomechanics using a wide range of mathematical/ computer processing tools to produce a biomechanical model for the body kicking leg movement technique profiling purposes. We used a systemic structural analytical theory to find the key logics for the modeling process. The spatial, temporal and dynamic movement rating characteristics helped us identify the key biomechanical factors/ criteria that may be applied to improve the training process quality.