Teaching physical fitness test system design basics

Dr. Hab., Professor G.G. Dmitriev1
PhD G.A. Yakovlev2
Dr. Hab., Professor R.M. Kadyrov1
PhD A.A. Munika1
1Military Institute of Physical Education, St. Petersburg
2Higher School of Economics, St. Petersburg

Keywords: design, physical fitness test system, education.

Background. A physical fitness test and rating system design project will be generally governed by some design framing tradition and method, with a specific project design ‘superimposed’ in some sense on such design framework. It should also be mentioned that in this particular case we created a new training system to help the trainees master the physical fitness test and rating system design basics.

Objective of the study was to analyze the factors of influence on the physical fitness test and rating system design.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study were the S.M. Budenny Military Communications Academy Physical Education Department faculty members (n=27). The study was logically designed to: (1) survey experts on how the physical fitness test and rating system elements may be ranked by their relative weights; (2) identify the key system elements; and (3) question the experts on the most efficient physical education service design logics.

Results and discussion. Given in Table 1 hereunder is the ranking of the physical fitness test and rating system elements by the experts, with the physical fitness test management skills ranked on top of the list and followed by the elements that may be provisionally referred to as the physical fitness test preparation ones – i.e. the test program drafting skills; the test design and control skills; test timing and scheduling skills etc.

Table 1. Physical fitness test and rating system elements ranked by the experts

Physical fitness test and rating system design skills and elements

Expert vote, %

Rank

Preparations for the tests

1

Test timing and scheduling skills

11,2

4

2

Test programming skills

18,5

2

3

Test contents and procedure drafting skills

14,8

3

Test procedure

4

Physical fitness test management skills

33,3

1

5

Physical fitness test data processing skills

3,7

7-8

Test data usage skills

6

Test data analyzing and summarizing skills

7,4

5-6

7

Conclusions and proposals making skills

7,4

5-6

8

Test data documenting and reporting skills

3,7

7-8

We should underline the importance of good preparations for the physical fitness tests that directly depend on the practical skills to design and manage the test procedure, with the process timing and scheduling viewed as the key skills in the physical fitness test and rating system design toolkit. It should be mentioned that these design skills are considered critical for the military academy faculty and cadets in the context of the individual cognitive abilities, progress agendas, values and priorities.

Design abilities may be interpreted as the reasonably sound knowledge field reinforced by a practical experience and manifested in the fitness for and understanding of the relevant design methods [3]. The project design capacity includes the skills to: select the physical fitness test exercises; coordinate executives of the test procedure; and schedule and manage the test procedure in a most efficient manner. The test design skills may be provisionally grouped in the ad hoc test design and the progress (stage) test design skills, with a special priority in the education process given to the abilities to build up and harmonize the test elements i.e. select and prioritize the test exercises and set a fair test data rating system.

The physical fitness test system basics mastering process shall be generally intended to shape up the physical training and physical fitness progress test control skills, with such skills viewed as the ‘knowledge in action’ with its purposes, determination, practical efficiency and versatility aspects [4]. The physical fitness test and rating system design process in normally geared to:

– Formulate mission for the test procedure;

– Spell out the components of the test and offer a test data rating system;

– Quantify the physical fitness test and rating system elements; and

– Find correlations for the quantified physical fitness test and rating system elements.

It may be beneficial to identify the core test and rating elements in the physical fitness test and rating system design process. Thus V.P. Bespalko [2] mentions the following design elements:

– Offer efficient motivations for the trainees’ control skills building process;

– Select the most efficient tools and ways to make them interested in developing the specific test and data rating skills;

– Stage up the physical fitness test and rating system design skills building process with its immediate, interim and final goals.

The test and rating process design logics requires to:

– Shape up the design in mind in general outlines;

– Clearly visualize the future physical fitness test and rating procedure; and

– Map out the design in some descriptive format.

As provided by V.S. Bezrukova [1], a design process implies going from the general outlines to details of the project to make it fit for implementation in real educational practices. In our study we analyzed the individual problems faced by the trainees in the physical fitness test and rating system design basics mastering process: see Table 2.

Table 2. Problems faced by the trainees in the physical fitness test and rating system design basics mastering process (n = 79)

 

Problems with:

Expert vote, %

Yes

Rather yes

Rather no

No

1

Prioritizing key test and rating process elements

41,8

29,1

20,3

8,8

2

Selecting test exercises

45,6

32,9

15,2

6,3

3

Rating physical fitness test data

49,4

32,9

12,6

5,1

4

Managing operations of test team and subjects

41,8

29,1

20,3

8,8

On the whole, the sample reported problems with every element, with the major difficulties faced in selecting the test exercises and rating the physical fitness test data. The situation may be due to the shortage of specific knowledge and experience for the physical fitness tests, with the sample found to widely vary in the skills and problems.

We surveyed 27 experts to rate the factorial values of the physical fitness test skills and offer a well-grounded skills mastering sequence based on the factorial analysis: see Table 3.

Table 3. Factorial values of the physical fitness test system design and control skills

 

Physical fitness test system design and control skills

Н

Factors

I

II

III

IV

1

Test system scheduling and timing skills

620

735

160

211

-94

2

Test programming skills

657

764

61

83

250

3

Test content and procedure drafting skills

620

729

253

65

137

4

Physical fitness test management skills

672

270

783

138

3

5

Physical fitness test data processing skills

614

96

729

222

153

6

Physical fitness test data analyzing and summarizing skills

439

65

123

637

113

7

Test conclusions and proposals making skills

480

174

177

646

26

8

Test data documenting and reporting skills

382

115

80

93

594

9

All-round test process control skills

960

630

525

455

286

Factor contribution

 

40%

23%

21%

16%

Note: H means the ‘communality’ index

Factor I makes the highest contribution (40%) to the range of the test preparation skills (40%). Factor II, with the contribution of 23%, refers to the test process management skills. Factor III, with the contribution of 21%, refers to the test conclusions and proposals making skills. And factor IV, with the contribution of 16%, refers to the test data documenting and reporting skills. It should be mentioned that the all-round test process control skills were included in Factor I to underline the importance of these skills for the whole test system. In our further analysis of the above Table of factorial values, we found the skills having the highest ‘communality’ indices (42) that weight the degree of influence of each skill on the factors on the whole. Ranked with the highly communal skills were those with Н2> 0.5.

Based on analysis of the above factorial values and the relevant communality indices, we drafted the skills mastering process guiding sequence: see Table 4. It should be noted that the skills mastering process sequence, in contrast to the skills validation and weighting analysis, is designed in a different manner, with a special focus on the critical factors in the test system. These factors need to be fixed, scoped and quantified in the first steps of any process design.

Table 4. Guiding sequence for the physical fitness test system design and control skills mastering process

Skills

Mastering sequence

Factorial value

Н

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

Physical fitness test management

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

783

672

Physical fitness test programming

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

 

764

657

Physical fitness test scheduling and timing

 

 

+

 

 

 

 

 

735

620

Physical fitness tests content and procedure drafting

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

729

620

Physical fitness test data processing

 

 

 

+

+

 

 

 

729

614

Conclusions and proposals making

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

 

646

480

Physical fitness test data analyzing and summarizing

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

 

637

439

Physical fitness test data documenting and reporting

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

+

594

382

Conclusion. The study data and analyses made it possible to rate the knowledgebase for and key elements of the physical fitness test system design process stages; and set training goals for the physical fitness test system design basics mastering process.

References

  1. Bezrukova V.S. Pedagogika. Proektivnaya pedagogika [Pedagogics. Projective pedagogics]. Ekaterinburg, 1988, 387 p.
  2. Bespalko V.P. Slagaemye pedagogicheskoy tekhnologii [Components of educational technology]. Moscow: Pedagogika publ., 1968, 324 p.
  3. Kadyrov R.M., Blakhin G.N. Modeli v teorii fizicheskoy podgotovki [Modeling in physical education theory]. St. Petersburg: Inkeria publ., 2014, 215 p.
  4. Kadyrov R.M., Karavan A.V., Get’man V.D. Model samoupravleniya studentami fizicheskoy trenirovkoy [Student's self-guided physical training model]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2015, no. 9, pp. 3-4.
  5. Kadyrov R.M., Mikhail I.I. Modelirovanie ob'ema i intensivnosti nagruzok v protsesse fizicheskoy trenirovki [Physical load volume and intensity modelling in training process]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2016, no. 8, pp. 72-75.

Corresponding author: vifk-nic@yandex.ru

Abstract

Any design process is intended to put in order the subject system on the whole and in every detail, with the design projects provisionally classifiable into direct and indirect ones depending on the goals of the creative activity. Objective of the study was to analyze the factors of influence on the physical fitness test and rating system design. Sampled for the study were the S.M. Budenny Military Communications Academy Physical Education Department faculty members (n=27). The study included a questionnaire survey to obtain the expert opinions on the relative importance of every element of the physical fitness test and rating system; highlight the key elements; and find the best process design options. The study data and analyses made it possible to rate the knowledgebase for and key elements of the physical fitness test system design process stages; and set training goals for the physical fitness test system design basics mastering education.