Urban physical training and sport practices: safety issues

PhD, Associate Professor T.A. Stepanova1
Dr. Med., Professor E.I. Pochekaeva1
PhD, Associate Professor N.V. Ryzhkin2
Associate Professor E.V. Nemtseva2
PhD R.M. Olkhovskiy3
1Southern Federal University, Rostov-on-Don
2Don State Technical University, Rostov-on-Don
3Rostov regional branch of All-Russian public organization “Russian Student Sports Union”, Rostov-on-Don

 

Keywords: physical education, sports, safety, student health standards, urban environment.

 

Background. Interest in mass sports has reportedly been on the rise after the 2014 Olympics in Sochi, with sport clubs being formed all over the country by enthusiasts for systemic sporting practices. Many new physical education and sport facilities have been put into operation since then, but there are still quite a few facilities in operation that are unacceptable due to the poor sanitary, hygienic and safety conditions – and incompliant, among other things, with the valid SP 1.1.1058-01 ‘Industrial Sanitary, Anti-epidemic/ Disease Prevention Norms Compliance Check Procedures and Actions’ and GOST Р 52025-2003 ‘Physical Education, Health and Sport Services: Consumer Safety Requirements’.

Due to the fact that the job-specific conditions of the national physical education and sport specialist service were left uncovered by Federal Law # 426-FL “On the Special Job Conditions Assessment Procedure’ of 28.12.2013, the national Ministry of Labor and Social Security of the Russian Federation issued (on June 01, 2015) its Order #335n ‘On the Special Job Conditions Assessment Procedure in Application to Sport Managers and Competitors in Sport Discipline(s)’ that gives a special priority to the injury risk assessment component of the job conditions rating and classification procedure. List of the objects associated with potential risks of injuries includes sport facilities and movable sport equipment including special sport apparatuses, appliances and tools. The above Order also requires the illumination quality and air temperatures (climatic conditions) at the work station being factored in by the assessment procedure. This requirement appears highly relevant today due to the fact that many cities like Rostov-on-Don report shortages of areas for the sport facilities which have to be often located in congested environments or close to heavy-traffic motorways etc. Such unfavorable conditions for physical education and sport practices are associated with the high risks of injuries, disabilities and different health disorders including chronic diseases [1-8].

Objective of the study was to rate the sanitary-higienic conditions in the municipal and academic physical education and sport facilities versus the trainees’ health statistics.

Study findings and discussion. Subject to the study were the sanitary-higienic conditions in the municipal and academic physical education and sport facilities including lecture rooms. Sampled for the study were 47 students split up into an Experimental Group (EG, n=22) of the fifth-year students and Reference Group (RG, n=25) of the first-year students whose living and learning conditions were tested to obtain the aerial ionization rates, microclimatic characteristics, X-ray dozes and the illumination quality rates.

The natural illumination quality was found incompliant with valid SanPiN 2.2.1/2.1.1.1278-03 ‘Hygienic Requirements to the Natural, Electric and Combined Illumination in Housing and Office Spaces’ in 12.3% and 11.7% of the RG and EG training spaces, respectively. The unipolarity ratio was tested incompliant with valid SanPin 2.2.4.1294-03 ‘Hygienic Requirements to the Air Ionization in Administrative and Industrial Spaces’ in 85.6% and 82.3% of the RG and EG training spaces, respectively. The microclimatic conditions were tested incompliant with valid SanPin 2.2.4.548-96 in 14.7% and 13.4% of the RG and EG training spaces, respectively. And the ambient X-ray dozes were found compliant with valid NRB-99/2009 Standard.

Functionality of the sample was rated by Ruffier-Dickson indices and Stange-Gench Breath-Holding Tests, with the test data given in Table 1 hereunder. On the whole it  may be concluded that the functionality tests of the physical education and sports-active student groups trained in urban environments showed the functionality sag for the 5-year study period.

 

Table 1. Functionality rates of the EG and RG (р ≤0.05)

Test rate

RG

EG

М±m

σ

М±m

σ

Ruffier index

7,28±1,45

3,42

8,2±1,36

4,11

SBP

116,35±3,18

16,22

122,16±2,51

12,1

DBP

64,17±2,19

12,21

67,12±2,35

11,36

BP

2,2±0,25

0,88

2,4±0,1

0,56

Stange test

55±3,27

16,24

51,5±3,78

15,29

Gench test

35±2,23

9,86

31,6±1,52

8,12

Note: SAP – systolic blood pressure; DAD diastolic blood pressure

 

The study data and analyses showed that the modern academic physical education and sport systems shall be designed with a special attention to the hygienic and sanitary conditions. We recommend the health-and-functionality sensitive physical education and sport environment being formed as follows:

Stage 1: regular health tests of the student population; physical training programs customizable to the health and environmental conditions on a sport-specific basis, with a special emphasis on the motor skills, competitive requirements of the sport disciplines (contact/ no-contract sports); and the intensity controls in the physical education and sport practices [9].

Stage 2: functionality tests of the student population with further customization of the physical education and sport practices to the actual health test rates.

Every disease-prevention activity in the academic physical education and sport system shall be supported by due sanitary and hygienic instructions to facilitate the hygienic culture formation in students, with the sanitary education intended to promote healthy lifestyles based on the growing health competencies to build up good health protection and improvement knowledge and skills. A core objective of the hygienic culture building efforts will be to form healthy habits and agenda based on a good knowledge of the modern healthy lifestyle basics.

Conclusion. The modern academic physical education and sports systems shall be designed to factor in the environmental conditions in the sport facilities and customize the training models and tools to these conditions.

 

References

  1. Andryushchenko L.B. Monitoring fizicheskogo razvitiya studencheskoy molodezhi volgogradskoy oblasti [Monitoring of physical development of students in Volgograd region]. Vestnik Volgogradskogo gosudarstvennogo meditsinskogo universiteta, 2005, no. 2 (14), pp. 31-34.

  2. Andryushchenko L.B., Loseva I.V. Tekhnologiya formirovaniya gotovnosti k razvitiyu fizicheskoy kultury u studentov kak faktor sokhrannosti zdorovya [Technology of formation of competency for development of physical education in students as a factor of health preservation]. Ministry of Agriculture RF, RSAU – MSHA im. K.A. Timiryazeva, Moscow, 2009.

  3. Andryushchenko L.B., Averyasova Y.O., Kondrakov G.B. et al. Razrabotka i realizatsiya nauchno-metodicheskogo obespecheniya povysheniya kvalifikatsii pedagogov i spetsialistov po fizicheskoy kulture i sportu [Development and implementation of research and methodological support of advanced training of teachers and specialists in physical education and sports].  Plekhanovskiy nauchnyiy byulleten, 2017, no. 2 (12) pp. 17-21.

  4. Bondin V.I. , I.A. Ponomareva, T.A. Zhabrova et al Funktsionalnoe sostoyanie i zdorove u razlichnyih kategoriy molodezhi v sovremennyih usloviyah ekologicheskoy sredy [Functional state and health of various categories of young people in modern environmental conditions]. Izvestiya Baltiyskoy gosudarstvennoy akademii rybopromyslovogo flota: psikhologo-pedagogicheskie nauki, 2012, no. 2, pp. 41-48.

  5. Doklad o sostoyanii sanitarno-epidemiologicheskogo blagopoluchiya naseleniya Rostovskoy oblasti v 2016 godu [Report on the state of sanitary and epidemiological well-being of the population of the Rostov region in 2016]. [Electronic resource]. Available at: http://www.61.rospotrebnadzor.ru/ (date of access: 2.06.2017).

  6. Enchenko I.V. Razvitie uslug sfery fizicheskoy kultury i sporta v Rossii [Development of physical education and sports service sphere in Russia]. PhD diss.. St. Petersburg, 2015, pp. 12-88.

  7. Zemlina E.M., Stepanova T.A. Biokhimicheskie izmeneniya v organizme studentov pri fizicheskikh nagruzkakh [Biochemical changes in the body of students during exercise].  Tavricheskiy nauchnyiy obozrevatel,2016, no. 11-3 (16). Available at: http://cyberleninka.ru/article/n/biohimicheskie-izmeneniya-v-organizme-s... (date of access: 12.08.2017).

  8. Lysenko A.V., Lysenko D.S., Pochekaeva E.I. et al Vozrastnye osobennosti vliyaniya aeroionizatsii na funktsionalnoe sostoyanie studentov [Age-related characteristics of influence of aeroionization on students' functional state]. Uchenye zapiski un-ta im. Lesgafta, 2016, no. 2, pp. 114-118.

  9. Naskalov V.M. Osobennosti metodiki provedeniya zanyatiy po fizicheskomu vospitaniyu studentov v ekologicheski neblagopriyatnoy srede [Specifics of physical training process methodology for students in environmentally unfriendly environment]. Uchenye zapiski un-ta Lesgafta, 2014, no.12 (118), pp. 145-150.

 

Corresponding author: tastepanova@sfedu.ru

 

Abstract

The study analyzes reports of the Russian Consumer Service Supervision Administration Rostov Office on the urban environmental, hygienic and health situation; and rates effects of the sanitary-hygienic living and learning conditions on the physically active sporting university students’ health. The sanitary-hygienic conditions were rated in the university lecture-rooms and municipal physical training and sport facilities. Subject to the study were Experimental Group (EG, n=22) of the fifth-year students and Reference Group (RG, n=25) of the first-year students whose living and learning conditions were tested to obtain the aerial ionization rates, microclimatic characteristics, X-ray dozes and the illumination quality rates. The study data and analyses demonstrated the need for the modern academic physical education and sport services being designed to meet the valid sanitary-hygienic standards. Based on the study findings, we recommend an algorithmic health improvement model sensitive to the environmental situation.