Elite female freestyle wrestlers’ competitive performance profiling by technical mastery rating criteria

Dr.Hab., Professor B.I. Tarakanov1
Dr.Hab., Professor R.N. Apoyko1
PhD, Professor S.I. Petrov1
Postgraduate, Olympic champion N.V. Vorobyeva1
1Lesgaft National State University of Physical Education, Sport and Health, St. Petersburg


Keywords: competitive performance, technical mastery rating criteria, female wrestler, analysis, variation, technical/ tactical action, score, activity, competitive success, bout.


Introduction. Intensive development of women's wrestling sport, which has become ingrained in the Olympic program, explicitly requires that the quantity and quality of scientific research aimed to improve the efficiency of training of female athletes of various qualification to be increased [8]. At the same time, one of the priority avenues of such a research is to study and analyze the female wrestlers’ competitive performance, as well as define a range of technical/ tactical actions and technical mastery rating criteria [1, 4]. Reliable and time-sensitive information about these competitive performance aspects makes it possible to determine their dynamics within various inter-Olympic cycles; objectively identify the main trends of development of women's wrestling sport and elaborate a set of scientifically substantiated recommendations to improve the female wrestlers’ skills.

Objective of the study was to analyze the dynamics of changes in the technical mastery rating criteria of competitive performance of elite female wrestlers when assessing the prospects of further changes in these criteria.

Methods and structure of the study. To determine the mentioned dynamics, we gathered, processed and interpreted a great deal of information by means of a comprehensive analysis of the video records of bouts and protocols of women's freestyle wrestling competitions. The following competitions were analyzed: 2013 Russian Championship (130 bouts), 2013 Russian Cup (116 bouts), international tournaments of free-style wrestling Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin" of 2014 (118 bouts) and 2015 (126 bouts), 2015 Russian Cup (141 bouts), 2016 Russian Championship (141 bouts), 2016 Russian Cup (155 bouts), 2018 European Championship (28 bouts). At the same time, we considered the earlier calculation data on similar indicators in the female wrestlers at the 2006 Russian Cup (105 bouts [3]). Thus, 9 national and international competitions were analyzed, and the total number of bouts under study amounted to 1060.

Results and discussion. The technical mastery rating criteria were calculated in accordance with the recommendations of experts [2, 7, 5], which enabled to find that these criteria are in a constant dynamics depending on a number of reasons, mainly, on the changes in the bout format and competition level.

The aggregate data obtained is presented in Table 1.


Table 1. Dynamics of technical mastery rating criteria of elite female wrestlers’ competitive activity (M ± m)



Average number of TTA per a bout

Average score in a bout

Average number of TTA per minute

Average score per minute

Competitive success, scores

Time interval in between effective attacks, sec

Average duration of a bout, min, sec

2006 Russian Cup








2013 Russian Championship








2013 Russian Cup








2014 International Tournament of free-style wrestling Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin"








2015 International Tournament of free-style wrestling Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin"








2015 Russian Cup








2016 Russian Championship








2016 Russian Cup








2018 Russian Championship









The table shows that the average number of technical/ tactical actions (TTA) per a bout, being characterized by the rather high values ​​during the 2006 Russian Cup (4.65±0.30), dropped sharply to 4.26±0.30 during the 2013 Russian Championship and to 4.17±0.28 during the 2013 Russian Cup. This is probably due to the changes in the bout format and other changes in the rules that occurred during this period. However, as the female athletes adapted to the rules requirements, the analyzed indicators increased once again to 4.69±0.21 during the 2014 International Tournament Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin" and to 4.62±0.20 during the 2015 Tournament. Thereafter, these indicators slightly decreased and leveled out.

A significantly different dynamics was observed in terms of the average score in a bout, which at the beginning of the analyzed period was at a relatively low level (7.13±0.50 during the 2006 Russian Cup, 6.79±0.42 during the Russian Championship; 8.00±0.55 during the Russian Cup), and then increased significantly and amounted on average from 8.72±0.36 to 9.66±0.44 in 2014-2016, although during the 2018 European Championship there appeared a downward trend again (8.43±0.37).

The average number of TTA per minute, on the contrary, was characterized by the highest values during the 2006 Russian Cup (1.40±0.09), the 2013 Russian Championship (1.21±0.10) and the 2013 Russian Cup (1.20±0.08), but starting from 2014 they decreased significantly and averaged from 0.95 to 1.10. According to these data, women's wrestling sport is becoming fairly close to that of men, which can be considered an indirect evidence of its intensive development and formation of the optimal structure of skills of elite female athletes.

The changes in the average score per minute were more peculiar. Thus, if at the beginning of the analyzed period they were characterized by a wave-like dynamics, making 2.14±0.15 points during the 2006 Russian Cup, 1.81±0.12 points during the 2013 Russian Championship, and 2.31±0.20 points during the 2013 Russian Cup, 1.98±0.05 points during the 2014 International Tournament Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin", in 2015-2016 this indicator gradually increased, reaching 2.24±0.12 points during the 2016 Russian Championship, though later it decreased again - to 2.07±0.11 points during the 2016 Russian Cup and to 1.90±0.09 points during the 2018 European Championship.

The lowest competitive success rates registered during the 2006 Russian Cup (1.54±0.14 cores) and 2013 Russian Championship (1.48±0.11 scores) increased statistically significantly in the future and levelled out ranging from 2.00±0.08 to 2.06±0.05 scores. It should be noted that such an increase is associated with the fundamental changes in the system of evaluation of the technical/ tactical actions of female wrestlers, which was introduced at the end of 2013 and formally increased the number of scores in a bout.

Most likely, the rule changes, as well as subsequent changes in the characteristics of the female wrestlers’ competitive activity, most significantly influenced the dynamics of changes in the time interval in between effective attacks. Thus, while during the 2006 Russian Cup, these figures were 43.8±4.5 sec and during the 2013 competitions they deteriorated significantly - to 54.2±6.0 sec (during the Russian Championship) and 52.9±5.6 sec (during the Russian Cup), further on, they deteriorated and leveled out relatively, ranging from 56.8±3.4 sec (during the 2016 Russian Championship) to 64.1±4.0 sec (during the 2014 International Tournament Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin").

At the same time, the average duration of a bout was even more dependent on the changes in the bout rules and the system of evaluation of technical/ tactical actions. At the beginning of the analyzed period, these figures were low and during the 2006 Russian Cup averaged to 3 min 20±18 sec, during the 2013 Russian Championship - 3 min 52±22 sec, during the 2013 Russian Cup - 3 min 37±20 sec, but starting from 2014, they significantly increased and amounted on average to more than 4 min: from 4 min 6±12 sec during the 2016 Russian Championship and to 4 min 56±10 sec during the 2014 International Tournament Grand-Prix series "Ivan Yarygin".

Therefore, summarizing the above data, we can note the following:

- the analysis of the dynamics of competitive activity of female wrestlers should be carried out based on the study of the informative technical mastery rating criteria characterizing its various aspects depending on the changes in the bout rules, competition rules and the stage of development of women's freestyle wrestling;

- it was found that after the fundamental changes in the wrestling competition rules in 2013, the majority of the technical mastery rating criteria changed considerably, with the number of TTA and scores per a bout, competitive success, average duration of a bout, but the time interval in between effective attacks significantly increased;

- these facts testify to the presence of a constant significant dynamics of the content and structure of competitive activity of elite female wrestlers, which requires careful monitoring of technical/ tactical actions of the female athletes during the bouts to make timely adjustments to the training process.

Conclusion. The detected statistically significant changes in the technical mastery rating criteria, characterized by the increased competitive success, significant increase in the duration of bouts and reduction of the time interval in between effective attacks, aggravated seriously the competitive activity of female athletes in modern freestyle wrestling, which, on the one hand, requires some significant changes in their technical/ tactical training in accordance with the dynamic conditions of this activity and, on the other hand, contributes to the improvement of image of women’s wrestling in the modern Olympic movement.



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Corresponding author: sergei_ashkinazi@mail.ru



The study gives a detailed analysis of the elite female wrestlers’ competitive performance profiles using the most informative technical mastery rating criteria, for the period of 2006 till now. The fight control variations were profiled versus the changes in rules and levels of competitions and the specific stages in the elite freestyle wrestling development process. The study data and analyses show the need in the competitive performance improvement, extension of the average bout duration and cutting down the time intervals in between the attacks. On the whole, the study data show fast progress of the women freestyle wrestling, with most of the competitive performance rating criteria being fairly close to that in the men freestyle wrestling; and the need for the requirements to the techniques and tactics in the elite women’s freestyle wrestling being stepped up to encourage progress in this sport.