Competitive training models, methods and tools for chess players with health disorders

PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Mikhaylova1
Dr. Hab., Professor О.N. Stepanova2
1Russian State Social University, Moscow
2Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow

Keywords: competitive chess, Federal Sport Training Standard, competitive fitness, physical qualities, mental qualities, players with health disorders.

Background. Training systems, models and tools applied in the physicality prioritizing sport disciplines have been widely covered by the relevant national theoretical and practical studies by V.S. Farfel (1960), A.D. Novikov (1963), L.P. Matveyev (1965), L.Z. Gorokhovsky (1968), V.M. Zatsiorsky (1970) et al. [3, 5, 12], whilst the competitive chess with its emphasis on the individual intellect rather than physicality has long been beyond the systemic studies. As a result, the national chess players are still in need of chess education textbooks, whilst the available training manuals are seriously erroneous in some issues. Thus Z.K. Kholodov and V.S. Kuznetsov state that ‘chess trainings require no special physical practices for competitive success’ [14]. This statement comes in conflict with the modern chess training practices (particularly the adaptive chess ones) that normally assign at least 2 hours per day to physical trainings, with due physical fitness now widely viewed among the key drivers for success in elite chess [9]. This situation requires the existing adaptive chess training toolkits being analyzed, revised and systematized.

Objective of the study was to overview benefits of the modern competitive training models, methods and tools for chess players with health disorders to secure their good competitive progress plus mental, physical and social health standards.

Methods and structure of the study. For the purposes of the study, we analyzed and summarized the valid legal and regulatory provisions of the national Ministry of Sports in application to the chess players with health disorders, including the Federal Standard for Competitive Chess [6, 13]; dissertations focused on the issues of importance for chess sport [15]; and the own and other experts’ competitive, training and coaching experience with a special emphasis on the technical, tactical and physical training tools potentially beneficial for the chess players with health disorders [7, 8]. We summarized our findings and ideas in the digital chess education system ‘Chess Lessons from Anatoly Karpov’ and digital textbooks and chess instruction manuals, and successfully tested these materials, ideas and training systems in the national mass, elite and adaptive chess sectors, including the globally recognized international Moscow Open Chess Festival and the 2017-18 Russian State Social University Fast Chess Cup for chess players with visual impairments and disabilities.

Study results and discussion. The key elements of the chess training systems were offered more than 70 years ago by M.M. Botvinnik, the first World Chess Champion from Russia who identified them as ‘talent, physical endurance and trainings’ [10]. Theoretical fundamentals for the competitive chess viewed as an intellectual sport discipline were laid by P.A. Rudik (1926), A.A. Alekhin (1932), B.M. Blumenfeld (1947), N.V. Krogius (1979), V.B. Malkin (1983), O.K. Tikhomirov (1984), A.A. Kotov (1985), V.A. Alatortsev (1988), V.A. Bologan (1996), Y.N. Kuchumov (1997), T. Naydoski (1997), A.V. Bartashnikov (1998), T.Y. Paramonov (1999), O.V. Kozlova (2000), V.I. Kravchenko (2004), M.A. Vershinin (2005), A.Y. Gabazov (2005), O.V. Tarasov (2005), Y.Y. Simkin (2007), S.V. Bezotosov (2007), A.V. Ryazantsev (2009), A.V. Kokshayeva (2009), C.A. Bovaev (2011), S.N. Marsurov (2014) et al. [1]. It was A.A. Ilchenko (2011) who was the first to give a high priority to physical trainings in his dissertation albeit the study was limited to a healthy group of chess players only [4]. S.V. Gerasimova (2001) and V.G. Panush (2001) analyzed the adaptive chess training models potentially beneficial for people with cerebral palsy although the physical training elements were still largely beyond the focus of these studies [2, 11].

Given in Table 1 hereunder is our own vision of the key elements of the modern adaptive chess training system for people with health disorders, with a special priority both to the intellectual and physical training tools with due natural environmental and hygienic considerations.

Table 1. Chess training system for people with health disorders: key elements

Elements

Selection and identification system

Competitive system

 

Training system

Training and competitive process improvement aspects

Methods

Practical

 

Practical and general education tools

 

Practical and general education tools

 

Practical and general education tools

 

Main models and tools

Physical and intellectual actions and practices

 

Physical and intellectual actions and practices

 

Physical and intellectual actions and practices

 

Natural environmental and hygienic factors

 

Target qualities and abilities

Intellectual, mental and social qualities and functions

 

Intellectual, mental and social qualities and functions

 

Intellectual, mental and social qualities and functions

 

Intellectual, mental and social qualities and functions

 

Health elements

Social health

Physical, mental and social health

Physical, mental and social health

Physical, mental and social health

The chess training system outlined in Table 1 was piloted at Russian State Social University in the period of 2006-2017, with about 1,500 students with health disorders engaged in the adaptive chess training system piloting experiment including the chess referees’ trainings [8]. The new training model has resulted in more than 100 student qualifications for Class I-III, and one of the trainees (A.V. Komissarov) successfully qualified for the Russian national team and won the World Chess Championship for people with visual impairments and disabilities. The technical/ tactical/ mental/ physical progress tests of the Experimental Group showed benefits of the new chess training system as it was found to harmonically develop the intellectual, physical and mental qualities critical for success; and improve and maintain due mental, physical and social health standards in the modern adaptive chess sport.

Conclusion. Generally, the new adaptive chess training system for people with health disorders is recommended to be designed as follows:

  • Select and orient the beginner players with due regard to their diagnosed health disorders.
  • Competitions in adaptive chess are recommended to stay in the traditional formats with the traditional qualification system for adaptive sports as provided by the Uniform Russian Sport Classifier for chess sport discipline. It is important that people with health disorders shall be given access to both the adaptive chess competitions (with the relevant diagnose-specific groupings) and regular chess tournaments (including chess Olympics) for healthy players, as provided by the relevant rules of competitions.
  • The training tools shall give a due priority to the analytical, informational and communication tools with the excellence training stage dominated by trainings with application of the relevant popular online training systems and the elite chess training stage assisted by the modern cloud systems.
  • The physical trainings shall make an emphasis on the special and overall physical endurance and coordination ability training tools, with the progress stimulation and rehabilitation components customizable on an individual basis, with due priority to the modern cyclic aerobic training tools. Specific physical training and sport tools shall be individualized in the training system so as to cater for the individual predispositions.
  • Mental conditioning elements of the adaptive chess training system shall be designed to format and control the player’s mental health and fitness, with an emphasis on the fast on associative memory and thinking, schematic thinking (recognition), assessment capacity, intellectual capacity and willpower development aspects.
  • Training and competitive process for people with health disorders shall give a high priority to massage, respiratory and kinesiologic gymnastic practices, with the potential stress and fatigue controlled and managed by the relevant autogenic training tools.

The study found that the systemic adaptive chess training system designed to harmonically develop the intellectual, physical and mental qualities critical for success and improve and maintain due mental, physical and social health standards in the modern adaptive chess sport is highly beneficial as verified by the EG progress in the cognitive and intellectual performance, social adaptation and physical fitness domains.

References

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  2. Gerasimova S.V. Pedagogicheskie usloviya sotsialno-psikhologicheskoy adaptatsii detey s ogranichennymi vozmozhnostyami zdorovya posredstvom zanyatiy shakhmatami [Educational conditions of socio-psychological adaptation of children with impairments via chess sessions]. PhD diss. abstract . Moscow, 2001,24 p.
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  6. Linovitskiy E.P., Naydoski T. Teoriya i metodika shahmatnogo sporta: rabochaya programma distsipliny [Theory and methodology of chess sport: work program of the discipline]. Moscow: RSUPESYT (SCOLIPE) publ., 2011, 78 p.
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Abstract

The study analyzes the missions and specifics of the key training models for the players with health disorders in the modern competitive chess viewed as intellectually demanding sport discipline that requires high logical/ abstract thinking capacities. Objective of the study was to overview benefits of the modern competitive training models, methods and tools for chess players with health disorders to secure their good competitive progress plus mental, physical and social health standards.

The study demonstrates that a high priority in the sport identification, training and competitions of players with health disorders must be given to the intellectual and physical training practices geared to develop the key intellectual qualities, mental functions, physical and social qualities in the players. A special emphasis in the training and competitive process optimizing factors shall be given to a set of health and natural environment sensitive tools geared to mitigate the negative effects of overtraining and intellectual, sensor, emotional and physical fatigue in the players.

The systemic competitive training models, methods and tools for the chess players with health disorders shall be designed to harmonically develop the intellectual, physical and mental qualities critical for success; and improve and maintain due mental, physical and social health standards in the modern adaptive chess sport.