Emotional intelligence rating in physical education institute coach and students

PhD, Associate Professor V.R. Malkin1
PhD, Associate Professor L.N. Rogaleva1
Assistant  Y.A. Bredikhina1
1Ural Federal University, Yekaterinburg

Keywords: emotional intelligence, creativity, trainers.

Backgroundю Influences of the emotional intelligence rates on the professional service quality are ranked high among the topics for research and have been extensively studied [4-6, 11, 13]; albeit the athletes’ and trainers’ emotional intelligence appears still underexplored, with the few available studies giving rather controversial data, particularly in the gender-specific aspects [3, 14]. Most of the researchers and analysts still agree that the emotional intelligence rate is critical for success of the education specialists on the whole and sport trainers in particular [3, 7, 8, 13]. Trainers tested with the high emotional intelligence rates are normally highly optimistic, hopeful, versatile and creative in their responses to even the most unexpected situations and stresses in the competitive process, with such mindsets being beneficial for competitive success of the trainees [14]. Positively minded, feedback sensitive and enthusiastic trainers are normally highly efficient in the efforts to provide due motivations to and cement teamwork of their trainees as their own positive emotions are often viral for the teams and help establish a cooperative and success-focused climate for successful teamwork [15].

For instance, the study of the emotional intelligence rates versus the competitive success rates of a college baseball team shows a direct correlation between the player’s emotional intelligence and game performance as dictated by the game positions and goals set by the trainer [9].

Objective of the study was to rate the gender-specific emotional intelligence in trainers and future sport education specialists.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was designed to rate emotional intelligence (EI) in trainers and students using the D.V. Lyusin Emotional Intelligence Test [10] that offers 46 test questions to classify the EI into the interpersonal EI (compassion, understanding and control of other people’s emotions); intrapersonal EI (understanding and control of own emotions); and universal EI with the equal ability to understand and control own and other people’s emotions. The Physical Education and Sport Department students’ creativity was rated by the V.I. Andreev Creative Qualities Profiling Test [1] designed to rate the creative ability on a 10-point scale, with an emphasis on the personality qualities critical for success of the individual creativity development process. The test rates were categorized into very low, low, below average, slightly below average, average, slightly above average, above average, high, very high, and top ones.  

The study was performed at the Institute of Physical Education, Sports and Youth Policy of Yeltsin Ural Federal University in Yekaterinburg city. Sampled for the purposes of the study were 20 trainers (10 males and 10 females) and 25 first-year students (12 males and 13 females).

Results and discussion. The emotional intelligence tests of the trainers’ group rated 40%, 35% and 25% of the trainers with the middle, very high and high EI, respectively, and no one was tested low. Most of the trainers’ group (60%) was tested with the high EI that means that they should not face any problems in understanding own and others’ emotions. Moreover, they highly rated trainers may not only efficiently control their own emotions but also manage the self-control skills mastering process in the trainees, with a special emphasis on the competitive self-control skills.

The trainers tested with the average EI may quite constructively serve the athletes in standard situations albeit their service efficiency may sag in negative emotional environments. That is the reason why this subgroup is recommended to give a top priority to own emotional control skills with a special emphasis on the emotional flow analyses to secure progress of the professional service.

The EI rating tests found some gender specifics in the sample, with the women and men tested with the higher interpersonal and intrapersonal EI rates, respectively. The student group was tested 34%, 34%, 8%, 16% and 8% average, very high, high, low and very low on the EI scale, respectively, with insignificant gender specifics found in the group.

The EI rating data and analyses showed the EI progress paths being gender-specific, with men and women groups tested with a higher progress with age and experience in the intra- and interpersonal EI, respectively. Well-developed intrapersonal EI is critical for the service quality in the emotionally tense environments, and this is the reason why the trainers training systems shall give a top priority to this intellectual domain development efforts. This finding explains why the male trainers on the whole are more skillful and successful in the emotional self-control aspects than female.

A comparative analysis of the trainers’ versus students’ EI rating data arrays showed leadership of the trainers group with 105 versus 96 points, with the gap being particularly wide in the intrapersonal EI and the other peoples’ emotions reading ability. This finding is explainable not only by the difference in the age and experience [6] but also the trainer’s service requirements that give a top priority to the excellent team control and management skills and mental stress tolerance.

Since creativity nowadays is ranked among the top priority qualities of a good trainer, our further study was designed to find correlations of the EI and creativity rates in the sample. The correlation analysis helped us find the individual creativity elements highly correlated with the EI rates: see Table 1 hereunder.

Table 1. Correlations of the emotional intelligence and creativity rates in the student group

Test rates/ qualities

Optimism

Decisiveness

Leadership

Competitiveness

Authority

Communication

Determination

Heuristics

Management skills

Independence

IPEI

 

 

 

 

 

,625*

 

 

 

 

IREI

 

 

 

 

 

 

,704*

 

 

 

EC

 

 

 

 

 

 

,661*

 

 

 

TEI

 

 

 

 

 

 

,653*

 

 

 

Optimism

 

 

 

 

 

,655*

,604*

,642*

 

 

Decisiveness

 

 

,779**

 

 

 

 

 

,897**

 

Leadership

,629*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

,909**

 

Innovation

 

,660*

,797**

,835**

,718**

 

 

 

,745**

,637*

Competitiveness

,651*

 

 

,869**

 

,871**

 

 

 

,796**

 

Authority

,667*

 

,958**

,871**

 

 

 

 

,862**

 

Adaptability

,745**

 

 

,726**

 

 

,709**

 

 

 

 

 

 

Reformism

,782**

 

 

 

,651*

 

,615*

,672*

 

 

 

 

Flexibility

 

 

 

 

,580*

 

 

 

 

 

Note: IPEI interpersonal emotional intelligence; IREI intrapersonal emotional intelligence; EC emotional control; TEI total emotional intelligence

The correlation analysis found positive correlations of the EI rates with such qualities as communication skills and determination that are critical for an individual creativity; and this finding gives us the grounds to recommend a special emphasis in the future trainers’ EI development efforts being made on the communication skills and determination building aspects.

Conclusion. The study data rated the trainers more emotionally intelligent than the students albeit 40% of the sampled trainers were tested with the average emotional intelligence rates that can be restrictive for their professional service quality. The study data, analyses and correlations show the need for a high priority to be given to the focused psychological development and educational programs for the future sport trainers. Based on the study findings, we recommend the future studies in the field being geared to offer special psychological development and education programs for the future trainers to facilitate their emotional intelligence building process – due to the key role played by the relevant personality qualities in the professional careers.

References

  1. Andreev V.I. Samorazvitie menedzhera [Manager’s self-development]. Moscow: Narodnoe obrazovanie publ., 1995, 160 p.
  2. Berilova E.I. Emotsionalny intellekt kak faktor stressoustoychivosti u sportsmenov raznogo pola [Emotional intelligence as a factor of stress tolerance in athletes of different sex]. Proc. scient.-method. conf. KSUPCST faculty, 2015, no. 2, pp. 144–145.
  3. Berilova E.I. Emotsionalny intellekt i koping-strategii kak regulyatory psikhicheskogo vyigoraniya v sporte vysshikh dostizheniy [Emotional Intelligence and Coping Strategies as Regulators of Mental Burnout in Elite Sports]. Integrativny podkhod k psikhologii cheloveka i sotsialnomu vzaimodeystviyu: sb. nauch. tr. [Human psychology and social interaction: Integrative approach]. Maikop: ElIT publ., 2015, pp. 98–103.
  4. Bobkova N.G. Emotsionalny intellekt kak klyuchevaya kompetentsiya sovremennogo menedzhera [Emotional intelligence as a key competence of modern manager]. Biznes-obrazovanie v ekonomike znaniy, 2016, no. 2 (4), pp. 7–11.
  5. Breus Y. Emotsionalny intellekt kak lichnostny resurs professionalnogo stanovleniya predstaviteley sotsionomicheskikh professiy [Emotional intelligence as personal resource of professional development of representatives of socionomic professions]. Society, Integration, Education. Proceedings of the International Scie. Conference. May 23–24, 2014. Rezekne, 2014, Vol. I, pp. 65–74.
  6. Vakhrusheva L.N. Virazhennost strukturnykh i kachestvennykh kharakteristik emotsionalnogo intellekta na etape yunosti i ranney vzroslosti [Level of structural and qualitative characteristics of emotional intelligence at adolescence and early adulthood stage]. PhD diss. abstract. Moscow, 2011, 20 p.
  7. Dalvinder S. Emotsionalny intellekt sredi devushek-beysbolistov: psikhologicheskaya proba [Emotional intelligence in female baseball players: psychological test]. PedagogIka, psihologIya ta mediko-bIologIchnI problemi fIzichnogo vikhovannya I sportu, 2015, no. 9., pp.  75–83.
  8. Danilyuk O.A. Emotsionalny intellekt kak faktor professionalno–pedagogicheskoy adaptatsii molodogo prepodavatelya [Emotional Intelligence as a Factor of Professional Pedagogical Adaptation of Young Teacher]. International Scientific Review of the Problems and Prospects of Modern Science and Education: IX International Science Conference USA, Boston, 08 March, 2016.
  9. Ilyasova N.V., Agavelyan R.O. Osobennosti emotsionalnogo intellekta sportsmenov individualnykh i komandnykh vidov sporta [Features of emotional intelligence of individual and team athletes]. Problemy sovremennoy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2014, no. 11 (29), pp.  105–108.
  10. Lyusin D.V. Sovremennye predstavleniya ob emotsionalnom intellekte [Modern concepts of emotional intelligence]. Sotsialny intellekt: Teoriya, izmerenie, issledovaniya [Social intelligence: Theory, measurement, research]. Moscow: IP RAS publ., 2004, pp. 29–39.
  11. Milovanova N.G. Emotsionalny intellekt: novy resurs pedagoga ili novye trebovaniya? [Emotional Intelligence: New Teacher's Resource or New Requirements?]. Professionalnoe obrazovanie v Rossii i za rubezhom, 2017, no 1 (25), pp.107–111.
  12. Petrovskaya T. Emotsionalny intellekt i sorevnovatelnaya trevozhnost sportsmenov [Emotional intelligence and competitive anxiety in athletes]. Nauka v olimpiyskom sporte, 2015, no. 4, pp. 60–63.
  13. Solodkova T.I. Emotsionalny intellekt kak lichnostny resurs preodoleniya sindroma vygoraniya i ego razvitie u pedagogov [Emotional Intelligence as individual resource for coping with Burnout Syndrome and its Development in Teachers]. PhD diss.. Irkutsk, 2011, 160 p.
  14. Nikbakhsh R.,  Nourollahi H.,  Mirzaei A.,  Rahimi M. Comparison of emotional intelligence on sport coaches. Pelagia Research Library, European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2014, 4 (3), 98–101.
  15. Thelwell R.,  Lane A.,  Weston N., Greenlees I.  Examining Relationships between emotional intelligence and coaching efficacy. International Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 2008, 6, 224–235.

Corresponding author: valeryMalkin@yandex.ru

Abstract

The study gives a theoretical substantiation for the importance of emotional intelligence for the trainers exposed to high emotional stressors as verified by the research data that show the emotional intelligence rate being in a positive correlation with the professional progress. The study gives new gender-specific emotional intelligence rating data for physical education institute trainers and students and demonstrates correlations of the individual creativity with the emotional intelligence rates in the future sport trainers. On the whole, the study data showed the trainers being more emotionally intelligent than the students albeit 40% of the sampled trainers were tested with the average emotional intelligence rates that can be restrictive for their professional service quality. The study data, analyses and correlations show the need for a high priority to be given to the focused psychological development and educational programs for the future sport trainers. Based on the study findings, we recommend the future studies in the field being geared to offer special psychological development and education programs for the future trainers to facilitate their emotional intelligence building process – due to the key role played by the relevant personality qualities in the professional careers.