Professional working capacity maintenance in senior education specialists

PhD, Associate Professor O.V. Mironova1
PhD, Associate Professor L.V. Yarchikovskaya1
PhD, Associate Professor V.N. Kovalenko2
PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Tokareva3
Dr.Hab., Professor Yu.Ya. Lobanov4
1St. Petersburg State University, St. Petersburg
2A.F. Mozhaysky Military-Space Academy, St. Petersburg
3St. Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, St. Petersburg
4Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg

Keywords: physical status, physical exercises, physical training, motor activity, health-improving orientation.

Background. It is common knowledge that education specialists are exposed with age to a variety of gastrointestinal, cardiovascular, respiratory and musculoskeletal system and other diseases [2]; and age-specific systemic physical training practices are ranked among the key tools to counter the job-specific physical inactivity and prevent health degrading processes in the senior education specialists. As demonstrated by many studies, physical trainings improve the neuro-muscular coordination, nervous system plasticity and harmonize motor, autonomic and mental performance to secure high efficiency of the nervous and humoral regulatory mechanisms [5]. Intensive muscular activity is critical for successful control and prevention of physical inactivity and health disorders [1, 4].
Objective of the study was to offer professional working capacity maintaining physical training models for the senior education specialists.
Methods and design of the study. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed at Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The methods applied for the study purposes were questionnaire surveys; process chronometry; progress tests; fact-finding (laboratory) and progress-focused educational experiments; and statistical data processing methods.
The study data showed the physical activity of the university faculty (with the only exclusion for the Physical Education Department staff) being far short of the age-specific norms averaging only 6.5 thousand motions per day. The job-specific responsibilities of the education specialists on the whole and the senior ones in particular expose them to high nervous and mental stresses associated with physical inactivity and, hence, sagging immunity to the detrimental effects of the environment, and the combined effects expose them to at least premature aging processes [6]. The disease statistics of the sample was found dominated by the blood circulation system diseases (22.95% now versus 18.5% in 2016); followed by the gastrointestinal system diseases 34.6% now versus 36.9% in 2016) and nervous system diseases (18.8% now versus 15.9% in 2016).
Based on these prior data, we formulated the health improvement goals for the seniors’ professional working capacity maintaining physical training model customizable for the health disorders and age, with a special emphasis on the aging prevention, active longevity and professional working capacity maintaining practices. The set of physical exercises was designed to improve/ uphold the aerobic capacities, muscular strength and good functionality of joints. As far as the health and therapeutic respiratory practices are concerned, most common and acknowledged in our country are Strelnikova Paradoxical Breathing Exercises; K.P. Buteyko Volitional Control of Deep Breathing (VCDB) method; and increasingly popular Oxycise breathing exercise [3]. The Oxycise practices may be described as unique in the sense that they are readily accessible for every group of trainees irrespective of actual health conditions, and do not require special equipment [7].
Furthermore, we applied a set of efficiency rating criteria and run an anonymous questionnaire survey of 102 educators prior to the training model testing experiment. Subject to the progress testing experiment were two Experimental Groups (EG1 and EG2) and a Reference Group (RG, n=18) composed of 40-plus year-old educators. The EG1 (n=10) was formed of the people prone to jogging practices; and EG2 (n=15) of the people striving to improve the spinal and articular flexibility. The RG trainings were dominated by team sports and optional body conditioning athletic gymnastics. The group practices included accessible body conditioning and breathing practices with the physical progress tests.
Given on Figure 1 hereunder are the EG training model design and content.
Study findings and discussion. The training model testing experiment showed the new practices being more effective than the traditional training systems; with the highest EG progress attained in the body functionality rates.

Figure 1. EG1/ EG2 training model design and content (*optional practices)

Thus the EG were tested with a significant progress in the step tests and Breath-Holding Tests i.e. the respiratory system performance indices with better transportation of oxygen to the body. The professional working capacity maintaining physical training model was found beneficial as verified by the EG1 progress in the physical fitness indices and the EG2 progress in the strength and flexibility indices: see Table 1 hereunder.

The EG2 made a significant progress in the spinal and hip joints flexibility indices and strength endurance indices in the pull-ups on horizontal bar tests.
Conclusion. The study data and analyses showed benefits of the senior educators’ working capacity maintaining physical training models as verified by the EG versus RG significant progress in the health, functionality and physical fitness test indices.

References

  1. Baturin A.E., Volskiy V.V., Kovalenko V.N., Pomogaeva N.S. Eksperimentalnaya proverka modeli fizicheskoy trenirovki voennosluzhaschikh mirotvorcheskikh sil [Experimental check of physical training model for servicemen of peacekeeping forces]. Uchenye zapiski un-ta im. P.F. Lesgafta, 2017, no. 9 (151), pp. 32-37.
  2. Grigoriev V.I., Mironova O.V., Tokareva A.V. et al Dykhatelnye gimnastiki na zanyatiyakh fizicheskoy kulturoy so studentami spetsialnoy meditsinskoy gruppy [Breathing exercises at physical education classes with special health group students]. Uchenye zapiski un-ta im. P F. Lesgafta, 2016, no. 2 (132), pp. 67-71.
  3. Endaltsev B.V., Tajmazov V.A. [ed.], Gorelov A.A. [ed.] Opredelenie fizicheskoy gotovnosti lyudey k trudovoy deyatelnosti. Materialy pervogo mezhdunarodnogo kongressa 'Terminy i ponyatiya v sfere fizicheskoy kultury' [Determination of individual physical fitness for work. proc. 1st international congress ' Terms and concepts in physical culture']. St. Petersburg: St. Petersburg SPU publ., 2007, pp. 80-81.
  4. Mironov V.V., Pashuta V.L. Teoriya i metodika fizicheskogo vospitaniya, sportivnoy trenirovki, ozdorovitelnoy i adaptivnoy fizicheskoy kultury. Ucheb. posobie [Theory and methods of physical education, athletic training, health and adaptive physical education. Study guide]. St. Petersburg: MIPE publ., 2010, 296 p.
  5. Platonov V.N. Obshchaya teoriya podgotovki sportsmenov v olimpiyskom sporte [General theory of Olympic athletes' training]. Kiev: Olimpiyskaya literatura publ., 1997, 583 p.
  6. Shchegolev V.A., Shevelev A.V. Kharakteristika funktsionalnogo sostoyaniya i zabolevaemosti grazhdan doprizyvnogo i prizyvnogo vozrastov na sovremennom etape [Characteristics of current functional state and morbidity of pre-conscription and draft age citizens]. Aktualnye problemy voenno-professionalnogo obrazovaniya i fizicheskoy podgotovki [Actual problems of military-professional education and physical training]. St. Petersburg: MIPE publ., 2008, pp. 56-65.
  7. Yarchikovskaya L.V., Koval T.E., Lukina S.M., Ustinova O.N. Mesto dykhatelnykh uprazhneniy v kombinirovannykh ozdorovitelnykh programmakh [Role of breathing exercises in combined health programs]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2017, no. 10, pp. 35-37.

Corresponding author: khubbiev@gmail.com

Abstract
The study analyzes the job responsibilities of education specialists with a special attention to the working capacity and job-specific potential detrimental effects on health. The study gives an analysis of the senior education specialists’ physical fitness variations; and offers two professional working capacity maintaining physical training models for this age group. Theoretical and experimental studies were performed at Saint Petersburg State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. The methods applied for the study purposes were questionnaire surveys; process chronometry; progress tests; fact-finding (laboratory) and progress-focused educational experiments; and statistical data processing methods. Subject to the progress testing experiment were two Experimental Groups (EG1 and EG2) and a Reference Group (RG) composed of 40-plus year-old educators. The study data and analyses showed benefits of the working capacity maintaining physical training models as verified by the EG versus RG meaningful progress in the health, functionality and physical fitness test indices.