Skill-specific speed building aspects in different sport disciplines

Фотографии: 

Dr.Biol., Professor R.A. Abzalov1
Dr.Biol., Associate Professor R.R. Abzalov1
Dr.Biol., Associate Professor N.I. Abzalov1
PhD, Associate Professor А.М. Valeev1
PhD, Associate Professor S.V. Abzalova2
1Kazan (Volga region) Federal University, Kazan
2Kazan State Power Engineering University, Kazan

Keywords: movement speed, fencers, skiers, football players, speed endurance, heart pumping function, hardware movement speed rating system.

Introduction. Changes in most vital signs, bodily systems and organs are associated with the level of development of man’s motor qualities [1, 4-8].
There are sensitive periods in the process of building such physical qualities as "movement speed" and "endurance"; moreover, at other age-related development stages they are, obviously, still being formed [2, 4]. This requires a specifically targeted study of these qualities under training loads, which are aimed to develop motor skills, using modern methods of research on movement speed and speed endurance, which formed the study objective.
The movement speed ability develops most intensively in the age range of 10-18 years - it is the sensitive period in the speed building process [4]. Then the speed ability development rate decreases. Speed endurance develops in the long run. When working on speed endurance, the movement speed indicators usually decrease. During the movement speed ability building muscular training the heart pumping function indices grow to a lesser extent. At the same time, due to the high heart rate, the diastolic pause is not long enough to develop myocardial hypertrophy and bradycardia associated with the training process, which determine stroke volume, and eventually minute blood volume.
Objective of the study was to identify the peculiarities of the skill-specific speed building aspects in different sport disciplines.
Methods and structure of the study. To test movement speed and speed endurance in vitro, we developed and approbated a computerized test system and manufactured a special device [3]. Subject to the study were skilled fencers, skiers and football players. It should be noted that fencing requires excellent speed qualities, and modern skiing sport requires high endurance, with both of the qualities being opposite. Football requires good speed-strength qualities and this was the reason for the footballers’ tests for comparative analysis.
Results and discussion. It was found that, with the growth of sports skills in the fencers, their movement speed ability development rate, determined by the maximum number of platform touches in 10 seconds, decreases, while the absolute values of movement speed increase. This is a significant refinement of the literary data, according to which the movement speed building process in young males is disrupted after 18 years [4]. This is, obviously, firstly, due to the application of the new research methodology, and secondly, due to the conditions the fencers face during muscle training. The movement speed indices in the male and female fencers were found to be significantly higher than those in the skiers and football players.
  This testifies to the fact that the nature of motor actions affects the speed ability building process. The movement speed indices in the males were significantly higher than those in the females in all the examined groups. Speed endurance was determined by the time of the test task performance at the set pace - 75% of the maximum possible task performance rate. This ratio is a generally accepted principle of optimization of the muscle training mode during sports activities [4]. With the growth of the subjects’ sports skills, their speed endurance absolute values increased steadily. Of all the studied groups of athletes, it was the skiers who had the highest speed endurance values, the football players came next. The speed endurance indices in the fencers were much lower than those in the football players and skiers. Speed endurance is a motor quality that determines the sports performance, regardless of the sports specialization. The skiers were found to have the highest speed endurance rates. In modern skiing, they use physical exercises that are to be performed at the maximum rate. In addition, sprint distance competitions arose in modern skiing sport. Consequently, the skier training process is often aimed to develop their speed endurance ability. While in fencing it is the movement speed ability that is developed during training. This is due to the necessity to hit an opponent as quickly as possible. Therefore, during their training, fencers mostly perform physical exercises to develop the speed of movements and, to a lesser extent, endurance. It can be argued that the training process in fencing stimulates and supports the development of such a motor quality as movement speed.
Of great interest is the maximum number of touches at the set pace. It largely indicates the ultimate physical working capacity at the set pace of 75% of the maximum. Of all the sport qualification groups, it was the football players who demonstrated the highest test performance rates. As for the Masters of Sport in football, their test performance rates equaled 245.12±7.11 touches. The skiers demonstrated lower results, the fencers – the lowest. One would think that the ski training process is mostly focused on the development of overall endurance, so their movement speed development rates should decrease, but they never do. This fact indicates that the ski training process involves speed building exercises, and this, in turn, promotes the improvement of speed endurance.
Therefore, our studies on the movement speed and speed endurance abilities, i.e. endurance to high-speed physical work, in fencers, skiers, and football players have revealed certain patterns that significantly clarified the literature data. This was owing to the application of the specially developed, entirely new, unknown up to the present, research method and hardware system used to determine the movement pace and endurance to high-speed physical work in vitro [2]. The movement speed development rate in all the athletes was found to decrease with the growth of their sports skills, although their absolute movement speed values increased. Consequently, the movement speed building training process for the fencers contributes to the development of such motor qualities as movement speed and speed endurance. During the entire muscle training cycle, speed endurance in all fencers, skiers, football players, from non-athletes to masters of sport, increased. It was the skiers who demonstrated the highest rates of endurance to high-speed physical work. The duration of physical work at the constant movement pace in the skiers - masters of sport increased 1.9 times as compared to the non-athletes, and in the fencers - 1.54 times. The highest values of physical working capacity in terms of speed endurance were registered in the football players - 245.12±7.11 touches, skiers - 233.66±6.13 touches, and fencer - 206.00±6.94 touches. It can be assumed that modern skiing is a perfect blend of the volume and intensity of muscular loads. According to the test results, physical working capacity in the males of all the studied sport groups (fencing, skiing and football) was significantly higher than that in the females.
Conclusions. The research work presents, so to speak, the second type of artificial sensitivity period in the speed building process in a more mature age, of which Professor V.K. Bal’sevich intuitively assumed. Obviously, that is why the movement speed values in the fencers continue to increase, while the progress pace continues to slow down. This is the first time ever we have determined this fact, and it is of theoretical relevance as it confirms V.K. Bal’sevich’s idea of the development of the so-called non-deterministic sensitive periods in the speed building process. The study of the functional characteristics of movement speed and speed endurance, as well as physiological mechanisms of their development, allows for determining their role in achieving maximal sport results.

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Corresponding author: 2902207@mail.ru

Abstract
The study analyzes the bodily adaptation specifics in different sport disciplines versus athletes’ skill levels and speed qualities. The movement speed was tested by a laboratory computerized test system using standard tests. Subject to the study were skilled fencers, skiers and football players. It should be noted that fencing requires excellent speed qualities, and modern skiing sport requires high endurance, with both of the qualities being opposite. Football requires good speed-strength qualities and this was the reason for the footballers’ tests for comparative analysis.
We found that the higher are the sport skills the higher are the speed qualities, with the progress pace dependent on the specifics and intensity of the muscular loads i.e. the sport discipline; and identified the most sensitive periods in the speed building process. 
We believe that the speed qualities and speed endurance rating tests and studies of the relevant progress mechanisms should give the means to assess their contributions to the competitive accomplishments.