PhD, Associate Professor G.N. Nizhnik1
PhD, Associate Professor E.P. Stolyarova1
1Yelets State Ivan Bunin University, Yelets
Keywords: physical fitness, young men, girls, strength and speed-strength fitness, endurance.
Introduction. In the past decade and a half, tremendous changes have taken place in public, social, economic, and indeed all spheres of life of the Russian society, many of which have had a negative impact on the health of the population [2, 4]. Among the reasons for poor health of the population is rapid scientific and technological progress, which has significantly reduced the level of people’s physical activity. The rapid growth in the volume of scientific information, computerization, intensification of the educational process in school are leading to overstrain, which causes fatigue, reduces students’ physical activity and deteriorate their health considerably. Another reason is a contradiction between the pedagogical management of the physical training process and modern requirements and physical education system efficiency in general educational institutions as a whole.
The students’ physical fitness test rates that characterize basic physical qualities are used as the basis for designing the education and training process under the academic physical education curriculum.
Objective of the study was to estimate and analyze the students’ physical fitness for fifteen years.
Methods and structure of the study. Applied for the study purposes were the common physical fitness rating tests. The study data were processed by the statistical data processing tools. The experiment was conducted every 5 years starting from 2002, and involved 348 students aged 18-19 years.
Results and discussion. It is the university students tested in 2002 who were found to have the highest physical fitness level: they exceeded their peers tested onwards in all parameters. The test data obtained in 2007, 2012 and 2017 academic years did not differ significantly. The 100m sprint test results of the young males have slightly changed over the past period; the mean values range between 13.4-14.0 sec. The standing long jump test results of the boys decreased by 12 cm. In the pull-ups on a high horizontal bar test, the young males demonstrated lower results - 3 reps less, and their 3000m race test results increased by more than 1 min.
The girls’ physical fitness indices indicate that, since 2002, the standing long jump test results have decreased by 15 cm, those in the 100m sprint test have decreased by half a second. The girls demonstrated similar results in the 30 sec sit-up test. The greatest changes were observed in the 2000m race test – the time of running the distance increased by 3 min on the average.
The data obtained suggest that, the level of physical fitness of students has decreased over the past period. And it decreased most significantly from 2002 to 2008, both in girls and boys. Nevertheless, it is fair to say that further on, from 2009 to the present day, the students’ physical fitness indices have been stabilized. It should be noted that changes observed in the development of speed abilities, neither in girls nor in boys were insignificant. The girls’ speed-strength indices that characterize the abdominal muscle speed-strength endurance have not changed significantly either. The lowest results were registered in the females in the standing long jump test (р˂0.05) and in the 2000m race test (р˂0.05).
Modern young males lag behind their peers tested in 2002 in the following tests: pull-ups on a high horizontal bar (p˂0.05), 3000m race test (p˂0.05). Consequently, a decrease in the male students’ motor fitness level in terms of strength abilities, as well as in both females and males’ motor fitness level in terms of speed-strength abilities has been observed over the past period as verified by the standing long jump test. It should be emphasized that the endurance index that foremost characterizes the youngsters’ physical working capacity and health level has decreased significantly in both young males and females as verified by the long distance run tests.
Practical application of the physical culture and sports GTO complex, geared to develop a potential and promote health of the population, also made it possible to compare the program evaluation standards and requirements for physical education of the population with the students’ test indices . The test indices of both girls and boys agreed with the normative physical education requirements for speed abilities in females (16.4-17.8 sec) and males (13.1-14.4 sec). The strength (10-15 reps) and explosive strength (210-240 cm) levels in the young males also corresponded to the GTO standards, while the girls demonstrated significantly lower indices of explosive strength (170-195 cm). The normative standards (12.00-14.30 min) for endurance skills of the young males were within the normal limits, and those of the girls were significantly lower than the normative requirements (10.50-13.10 min).
The analysis of the students’ physical fitness indices obtained in the RPCS GTO test revealed that the results demonstrated by the young males, despite the downward trend, were within the regulatory requirements of the reinstated standards, while those demonstrated by the females were much lower.
The study data and analysis of the dynamic changes in the students’ physical fitness for the period of 2002 to 2017 indicated a decrease in their physical fitness level, and consequently, their health level. In terms of the motor activity indices, modern students lag behind their peers tested in 2002 in a number of parameters.
The organization of the academic physical education process prevents from changing the current situation for the better for a number of reasons. Two physical education classes a week, as provided for by the university curriculum, cannot improve students’ physical fitness level and to a greater extent ensure the maintenance of the potential of the formed physical qualities and related abilities. Practical application of the physical culture and sports GTO complex has not changed the situation either, its program evaluation standards and requirements for physical training motivated a small number of students to be actively engaged in physical exercises [1, 5].
Conclusions. The current problem can only be settled by increasing the students’ motivation and introducing them into a healthy lifestyle, involving them into independent physical training or activities in sports sections. There is a need for an integrated approach with the focus on different aspects of enhancement of the importance of physical education and sports for the preservation and promotion of health of student youth.
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Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Objective of the study was to estimate and analyze the students’ physical fitness variation for fifteen years with the tests run every 5 years since 2002. Applied for the study purposes were the common physical fitness rating tests including speed-strength rating standing long jump and sit up tests; speed qualities rating 100m sprint test; strength rating (in male groups only) pulls-up on a horizontal bar test; and endurance rating 2000/ 3000m race tests for the female/ male groups, respectively. The study data and analysis showed a significant regress in the students’ physical fitness for the period of 2002 to 2008, with the highest regress tested in endurance, speed-strength and male strength rates.