PhD, Associate Professor S.S. Kuzmina1
PhD V.R. Abramova2
1M.K. Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk
2Churapcha State Institute of Physical Education and Sports, Churapcha village, Yakutia
Keywords: freestyle wrestling, special endurance, lactate, lipid peroxidation.
Introduction. In the contemporary theory of sports training of freestyle wrestlers the growth of sports results is associated with an increase in the athletes’ technical skills level. Given the increased intensity of competitive activity, improvement of technical and tactical training of wrestlers requires the development of their special endurance skills. Due to the specifics of a wrestling bout, an increase in special endurance is attributed to the greater involvement of anaerobic glycolytic processes in the energy supply of muscular work. The wrestlers’ special endurance level can be estimated based on the degree of acidotic shifts in the competitive environment . At the same time, the blood lactate level is determined by the intensity of anaerobic glycolytic processes. The study of the existing literature shows that the most suitable conditions for physical training that can maximize wrestlers’ anaerobic glycolytic potential are intermittent loading with repeated short-term series of exercises performed with maximum capacity for less than 60 seconds each, with constant (from 1 to 3 min) or shortening rest intervals . Against the background of intensive physical loads, the accumulation of lipid peroxidation (LPO) products along with a increase in the blood lactate concentration turns out to be a limiting factor. "Moderate activation of LPO processes in response to an adverse factor is one of the adaptation mechanisms. However, the accumulation of the products of free-radical oxidation is the most important factor complicating the adaptation process; it leads to a decrease in the motor abilities of the body, its endurance and physical working capacity".
Objective of the study was to estimate special endurance in freestyle wrestlers using the blood lactate and lipid peroxidation tests in a pre-season within an annual training cycle.
Methods and structure of the study. 18-23 year-old highly skilled (Candidate Masters and Masters of Sport in freestyle wrestling) students (n=23) of CSIPES were subject to the study. The peripheral blood lactate was tested by an Accutrend Lactate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics), which is used to measure blood lactic acid in 1 minute during training. The blood was sampled 3 minutes after the loading test. The intensity of LPO was determined based on the blood level of the final product of LPO - malone dialdehide (MDA) - using the color reaction with thiobarbituric acid (wave length - 532 nm). The low-molecular anti-oxidizing agents (LMAOA) were tested in the blood serum by oxidation of iron (III) chloride, the amount of which was then determined by the color intensity of phenanthroline solutions (wave length - 510 nm). The blood was sampled from the ulnar vein in the morning before and at the end of the training camp. Special endurance was evaluated using the complex test by V.F. Boyko , in which the athletes were to perform 20s-long maximal-intensity specific work of different nature three times in the interval mode with 10s rest intervals. EI (endurance index) was calculated as a ratio of averages obtained during the 2nd and 3rd minutes of work to the data recorded during the 1st minute. The second test was designed by the CSIPES trainers for rapid assessment of special technical fitness (operational test). It is a set of special exercises performed three times against the clock: 10 timed flying rolls ("poker hook"); 10 timed one legged squats; 10 jumps simulating double leg takedown defense ("legs throwing-away"); 10 timed hip-rolls; 10 timed sit-ups, hands on the nape. We also calculated a conditional unit as the ratio of the averages during the first set to the averages during the second and third sets per exercise.
Results and discussion. The educational test of the level of special technical fitness of the wrestlers at the beginning and at the end of the training camp showed a significant increase in the complex test results in 5 students out of 23, in the rest the differences were statistically insignificant. Moreover, there were no significant shift in the blood lactate concentration after the test. We observed an insignificant increase in the mean group EI value. The athletes must have been not motivated enough to perform the ultimate load during this test, and the results obtained cannot show the degree of realization of their functional capabilities. In the operational test, the students demonstrated better results: an increase by 15 s on the average in the "poker hook" test; by 18 s – in the pull-up test, by 10 s – in the "legs throwing-away" test. In general, the coefficient increased by 20% (p<0.05). The mean group lactate value also increased after the test - by 11% (p<0.05), which may indicate an increase in the anaerobic glycolytic capacity of the athletes’ body. Increased shifts in the blood lactate level after performing the test, against the background of improving test results, indicates the predominance of anaerobic glycolytic direction of this test load.
According to the literature data, people with the high level of adaptation to physical loads have lower levels of LPO and increased amount of antioxidants in the muscles. At the same time, athletes tested with the high level of adaptation to speed-strength loads demonstrate increased intensity of the LPO processes . In our earlier studies, we found the LPO level to be higher and the degree of antioxidant protection to be lower in the athletes as opposed to the reference group . The impact of the LPO processes on the athletes’ performance was determined by the content of MDA and overall activity of LMAOA in the blood at the beginning and at the end of this stage of the training cycle.
The findings showed a significant increase in the concentration of MDA and LMAOA in the blood - by 10% and 6%, respectively, which indicates increased tension of the "LPO-antioxidant" system in the athletes’ body, which may have a negative effect on the overall and special working capacity of the wrestlers.
Conclusion. The freestyle wrestlers’ special endurance indices obtained in two tests suggest that the CSIPES-designed test primarily reflects the level of the wrestlers’ anaerobic performance. Improved test results and greater acidotic shifts during the test indicate increased glycolytic capacity and special endurance of the athletes at this stage of the training cycle. Increased tension of the "LPO-antioxidant" system in the athletes’ body requires antioxidant correction of LPO activation caused by intense physical loads. It makes most sense to test the wrestlers’ special working capacity and conduct biochemical control of changes in their blood lactate level at different training stages to determine the dynamics of development of special endurance of the athletes and effectively manage the training process.
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Objective of the study was to assess benefits of a test system to estimate special endurance in freestyle wrestlers including the blood lactate and lipid peroxidation rating test designed by the instructors of Churapcha State Institute of Physical Education and Sports (CSIPES) for application in a pre-season within an annual training cycle. Highly skilled (Candidate Masters and Masters of Sport) students (n=23) of CSIPES were subject to an experiment. The peripheral blood lactate was tested by an Accutrend Lactate analyzer (Roche Diagnostics); and the interim products of lipid peroxidation including the malone dialdehide (MDA) and low-molecular anti-oxidizing agents were tested in the blood serum by the common spectrophotometric methods. The post-training-cycle test data showed progress of the sample in the specific working capacity and special endurance rates, with the highest progress tested as a result of the CSIPES-designed test. The lactate variations showed progress in the bodily glycolytic process in the subject training stage indicative of the special endurance improvement. As found by the study, the physical working capacity may be improved by the anti-oxidizing correction of the lipid peroxidation activation process associated with high-intensity physical activity.