PhD G.V. Buznik1
Dr.Med. A.O. Pyatibrat2
Dr.Med., Professor P.V. Rodichkin3
Dr.Med., Professor P.D. Shabanov1, 4
1Institute of Experimental Medicine, St. Petersburg
2Nikiforov All-Russian Center of Emergency and Radiation Medicine (ARCERM, EMERCOM of Russia), St. Petersburg
3Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg
4S.M. Kirov Military Medical Academy MD RF, St. Petersburg
Keywords: molecular genetics, endurance, functional reserves, professional selection, extreme physical loads, adaptation, biochemical indices, pharmacological support.
Objective of the study was to explore the dependence of the genotypic characteristics on pharmacological correction (using the actoprotectors Metaprot and Citoflavin) of the athletes’ functionality indices under extreme physical loads.
Methods and structure of the study. Elite athletes of various specializations (mean age 21.3±2.4 years), who were engaged in sports with primarily high- and moderate-intensity competitive loads were subject to the study. The study was conducted in the spring-summer period and lasted 5 years and was approved by the local Ethics Committee.
All the testees (n=341) were divided into 2 groups according to the metabolism controlling gene polymorphism characteristics: Group 1 (n=60) consisted of the individuals tested with the combination of alleles associated with the predisposition to aerobic metabolism; Group 2 (n=251) was made of the rest of subjects tested with different combinations of homozygote alleles.
For the period under study, all the athletes received organized nutrition to meet individualized diet needs with respect to the norm; the environment and daily regimen in both groups did not differ.
The baseline values of the analyzed characteristics were determined prior to the experiment and twice upon performance of extreme physical loads: during the first 24 hours and 3 days after. The 8-day educational experiment was conducted in vivo and included extreme and specific physical loads, the route in the rough terrain during that period was 366.5 km (about 46 km per day).
Sampling of biological material and body functionality assessment were made using non-invasive methods after the informed consent of the testees .
The main research method was polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The allele frequencies were assessed by analyzing restriction fragment length polymorphism .
Physical working capacity was studied using the PWC170 Cycle Test on the Cardioline XR100 cycle ergometer (Italy). Heart rate (HR) was recorded using the Schiller ECG Machine Cardiovit AT-102 (Switzerland). Blood pressure was measured by the N.S. Korotkov’s method. The timed inspiratory and expiratory capacity tests were carried out according to the generally accepted method. The "Reaction to a moving object" (RMO) test was carried out using the Neurosoft Ltd. NS-PsychoTest Tepping Test Unit (Ivanovo).
The surveyed athletes took Metaprot ("Sotex" CJSC, Russia) for 14 days - 0.25 g, 2 capsules twice a day - 29 subjects from Group 1, 82 from Group 2 (111 people in total), Citoflavin ("Polisan" NTFS, Russia) - 2 pills twice a day - 31/84 (115 people in total) and 30/85 (115 people in total) took placebo following the shape of the studied drugs. They started to take the medications 1 week before the experiment. All the surveyed athletes signed their informed consent to participate in the study. All the drugs used do not appear on the list of drugs banned by the World Anti-Doping Code dated January 01, 2017.
Results and discussion. The analysis of the dynamic changes in the level of physical working capacity, neurodynamic functions, circulatory and respiratory systems showed that Metaprot increased physical working capacity of the athletes tested with different combinations of homozygote alleles not associated with predisposition to the aerobic metabolism. The power indices in the PWC170 test significantly decreased after extreme physical loads in the placebo group, while in the group of athletes taking Metaprot the differences from the baseline values were statistically insignificant. In addition, the physical working capacity improved considerably during the rehabilitation period in the Metaprot group (Group 2), their PWC170 test indices returned to the baseline values in 3 days, while in the 2nd placebo group these values still varied significantly. The number of accurate hits in the RMO test significantly decreased after the educational experiment in all the surveyed groups; however, in the 2nd Metaprot group these indicators were 17% higher than in the 2nd placebo group. During the rehabilitation period, the RMO test indices of the 2nd Metaprot group athletes were restored to the baseline values, while in those taking placebo the neurodynamic function rates still varied significantly, and were 28% lower than in the 2nd group athletes taking Metaprot.
Evaluation of physiological reserves with the help of the respiratory samples (timed inspiratory capacity test) showed a significant increase in the physiological reserves in the Metaprot groups athletes. After the educational experiment, the Bogomazov index values in the 2nd Metaprot group subjects were significantly higher than in the 2nd placebo group ones - by 17%. During the rehabilitation period, the Bogomazov index values in the 2nd Metaprot group athletes returned to the baseline values in 3 days, while in the similar group taking placebo these indices still varied significantly relative to the baseline and were 17% lower as opposed to the 2nd Metaprot group athletes. Against the background of Metaprot administration, positive changes in the circulatory indices in the 2nd group after the educational experiment were statistically insignificant. However, the hemodynamic parameters (HR, SBP and DBP) in the 2nd group athletes taking Metaprot as well as in all the 1st group athletes returned to the baseline values on the 3rd day during the rehabilitation period versus the 2nd placebo group which indices still varied significantly.
The analysis of the dynamic changes in the functionality indices in the military personnel tested with different metabolism controlling genotypes, depending on whether Citoflavin was taken before or after extreme physical loads, showed that the heart rate in all the athletes, registered immediately after the educational experiment, was significantly higher than the baseline values. Against the background of Citoflavin administration, the positive changes in the circulatory indices after extreme physical loads were statistically insignificant in any of the surveyed groups. However, the hemodynamic parameters (HR, SBP and DBP) in the 2nd Citoflavin group of athletes and all 1st group athletes returned to the baseline values on the 3rd day during the rehabilitation period versus the 2nd placebo group subjects whose indices still varied significantly.
Physiological reserves were assessed using the respiratory samples (timed inspiratory capacity test) that showed a significant decrease in the physiological reserves in all the groups under study. However, in the 2nd Citoflavin group athletes ad all 1st group athletes, the Bogomazov index values returned to the baseline values in 3 days during the rehabilitation period, versus the 2nd placebo group subjects whose indices still varied significantly relative to the baseline and were 12% lower than those in the 2nd group subjects taking Citoflavin.
The analysis of the dynamic changes in the level of physical working capacity, neurodynamic functions, circulatory and respiratory systems showed that the 2nd Citoflavin group athletes restored their physical working capacity more quickly during the rehabilitation period, in 3 days the PWC170 test indices returned to the baseline values, while in the 2nd group taking placebo these values still varied significantly. In the 2nd Citoflavin group athletes the RMO test indices returned to the baseline values, while in the athletes of this group taking placebo the neurodynamic function indices still varied significantly and were 30% lower than in the 2nd Citoflavin group athletes.
Therefore, Metaprot was tested to be of positive effect on the extreme exercise adaptation mechanisms both at the biochemical and organs-specific levels, moreover, the rehabilitation period was significantly reduced, which was most clearly observed in the athletes tested with different combinations of homozygote alleles associated with the lower aerobic productivity indices. Against the background of Metaprot administration, these athletes were found to increase their physiological reserves, fasting metabolism efficiency, as well as reduce their rehabilitation period. Metaprot administration under physical loads was proved to decrease carbohydrate consumption and blood lactate concentration. The same tendencies were observed during rehabilitation after extreme physical loads . It is also believed that Metaprot increases physical working capacity by activating carbohydrate resynthesis [6, 7].
It is Citoflavin that most significantly reduced the rehabilitation time in the athletes tested with different combinations of homozygote alleles associated with the lower aerobic productivity indices. All Citoflavin components are natural metabolites involved in the oxidation-reduction processes, which help reduce the lipid peroxidation level and activation of anti-oxidant system functions, which normalizes the fasting metabolism .
Conclusion. The study shows different ways of pharmacological optimization of the athletes’ adaptation to extreme physical loads, both at the biochemical and organs-specific levels. The effects of pharmaceutical substance are largely determined by the individual’s anaerobic metabolism controlling gene polymorphism associated with the predisposition to aerobic metabolism, as well as by various combinations of homozygote alleles associated with the lower aerobic productivity indices.
- Akhmetov I.I. Molekulyarnaya genetika sporta [Molecular genetics in sports]. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2009, 268 p.
- Bobkov Y.G., Vinogradov V.M., Katkov V.F. et al. Farmakologicheskaya korrektsiya utomleniya [Fatigue: pharmacological correction]. Moscow: Meditsina publ., 1984, 208 p.
- Golubev V.N., Gorelov A.A., Kuznetsov I.A., Nosov V.N. Podgotovka spetspodrazdeleniy k deystviyam v osobykh usloviyakh [Training of special forces for special environment operation]. St. Petersburg: RO MIA publ., 2001, 350 p.
- Lopatina A.B. Teoreticheskie aspekty izmeneniya biokhimicheskikh pokazateley krovi organizma sportsmenov kak pokazatel adaptatsionnykh protsessov [Theoretical aspects of changes in athletic biochemical parameters as an indicator of adaptation processes]. Ped.-psikhol. i med.-biol. problem fiz. kultury i sporta, 2014, no. 2(31), pp. 115-120.
- Oleinik S.A., Gorchakova N.A., Yakovleva I.Y. et al Proizvodnye yantarnoy kisloty v sportivnoy farmakologii [Succinic acid derivatives in sports pharmacology]. Psikhofarmakol. i biol. narkol., 2007, vol. 7, Spec.is., p. 2, P. 1880.
- Pitkevich E.S., Lositskiy E.A., Pitkevich Y.E. Sravnitelnaya kharakteristika vliyaniya na fizicheskuyu rabotosposobnost aktoprotektorov: bemitila, tomerzola i meksidola [Boehmite, tomerzole and mexidol actoprotectors: comparative characteristics of effect on working capacity]. Tez. dokl. IX Ros. nats. kongr. 'Chelovek i lekarstvo' [Book of abstr. IX Rus. nat. congress. 'Man and medicine']. Moscow, 2002, pp. 351-352.
- Shabanov P.D., Zarubina I.V., Novikov V.E., Tsygan V.N. Metabolicheskie korrektory gipoksii [Metabolic correctors of hypoxia]. St. Petersburg: Inform-navigator publ., 2012, 982 p.
- Finck B.N., Bernal-Mizrachi C., Han D.H. et al. A potential link between muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-α signaling and obesity-related diabetes. Cell Metab., 2005, vol.1, pp.133-144.
Corresponding author: email@example.com
The study was designed to analyze the bodily homeostasis in extreme situations versus the metabolism controlling gene polymorphism. The study data showed correlations of different gene alleles with adaptability to high physical loads. The effects of Metaprot and Citoflavin on the athletes’ functionality indices under extreme physical loads were subject to a pharmacological analysis. Metaprot was found to improve the adaptation mechanisms under extreme loads both at the biochemical and organs-specific levels, with a significant decrease in the working capacity recovery time. Citoflavin was also tested to be of positive effect on the bodily adaptation mechanisms, particularly in rehabilitation periods; with the rehabilitative effects of Citoflavin found most expressed in the athletes tested with different combinations of homozygote alleles associated with the lower aerobic performance indices. The study data and analyses give grounds to conclude that the actual effects of pharmacological agents of nootropic action are largely determined by the anaerobic metabolism controlling gene polymorphism.