Psychomotor and speed qualities and mindsets cultivation in junior judokas for competitive progress

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor G.A. Kuzmenko1
Master student K.A. Kabanova1
T.N. Lugovskikh2
1Moscow Pedagogical State University (MPSU), Moscow
2Sambo-70 sports and education complex MCDPCS, Moscow

Keywords: junior judokas, weight classes, factors of competitive progress, psychomotor skills, cognitive processing speed, training, educational approaches.

Background. The modern situational sport disciplines give a growing priority to the competitive process rhythm, pace and dynamicity control rates in every sport-specific movement sequence [3, 5], motor density and cognitive processing speed improvements and competitive timing controls; with relevant initiatives generally designed both to improve the competitiveness and popularity of sports and the education and training systems [4] so as to build up the individual competitiveness within the relevant motor profile [2] and weight class limitations [1] – in view of the fact that, for instance, the speed control limitations are naturally different for different junior weight classes.

Objective of the study was to rate benefits of the junior judokas’ psychomotor skills and cognitive processing speed building model for competitive progress in different weight classes.

Methods and structure of the study. Sampled for the study purposes were 15-16 year-old (n=163) junior judokas trained at Sambo-70 Sport Education Center reporting to the Moscow City Department of Physical Education and Sport (“Moskomsport”). The research methods applied were educational process monitoring, interviews, training process timing tests, comparative analyses, data cluster analysis and factorial analysis.

Study findings and discussion. Based on the study data, we profiled the preferred coaching toolkits (coaching positions) applied to build up a variety of key competitive qualities and skills: see Table 1 hereunder. Having analyzed the junior athletes’ key psychomotor skills and cognitive processing speed components, we ranked them as follows (in response percentage terms): complex motor response rate (100); choice response rate (94.5); cognitive processing speed (100); competitive tactics control ability (100); receptive response strategy (100); creative thinking ability (100); counterattacking tactics (89.6); versatility of situation-specific responses (97.5); offensive and defensive skills (100); competitive agility (96.3); and tolerance to external pressures and tactics imposing skills (100).

Table 1. Preferred coaching toolkits (coaching positions) applied to build up a variety of the key competitive qualities and skills in junior (15-16 year-old) judokas

 Coaching position #

Weight class

Tools to excel:

Competitions

Won bouts

Lost bouts

Won prizes

Complex motor response rate

Choice response rate

Cognitive processing speed / decision making rate

Competitive tactics control rate

Situation-drive receptive strategy

Creative thinking ability

Counterattack tactics

Versatility of situation-specific responses

Offense and defense skills

Competitive agility

Tolerance to external pressures and tactics imposing skills

1

50-55

5

5

3

20

10

2

10

20

5

10

10

7,3

5

7,6

2,6

60-66

7,2

8

6,9

4,3

73-90

7,3

8,1

7,2

3,9

св. 90

6,8

7,4

5,6

5

Х average

7,2

7,1

6,8

4,0

2

50-55

10

5

6

9

5

5

15

10

15

10

10

7,2

10,9

5

3

60-66

7,6

11,7

4,4

5,2

73-90

15

10

7,2

13,8

6

5,4

св. 90

7,1

15

1,9

5,8

Х average

7,3

12,9

4,3

4,9

3

50-55

5

13

5

5

5

0

2

10

15

25

15

7,1

4,8

8,6

2,4

60-66

7,3

6,6

8,1

4,2

73-90

6,4

10

3,2

св. 90

3

1

0

4

60

12

15

0

0

4,3

6,4

1,8

Х average

7,3

5,5

8,3

2,9

4

50-55

10

6

5

25

5

0

4

25

5

15

0

7,2

3

10

2

60-66

13,8

6

5,4

73-90

7,1

5,8

11,5

2,4

св. 90

0

5

0

1

3

80

0

4

2

7,2

3

9,2

1,4

Х average

7,2

6,4

9,2

2,8

Furthermore, we made a training process timing analysis under the psychomotor skills and cognitive processing speed building model, with summation of the tasks setting and execution times versus the quality/ ability progress. In the coaching toolkits profiling study, we found, among other things, the following logics: the higher is the weight class the less versatile is the training toolkit applied to build up the competitive agility and speed qualities. The factorial analysis of the physical fitness rates and technical/ tactical skills (of the whole sample irrespective of the weight classes) showed dominance of a few key competitive fitness factors including complex motor response rate (0.655); competitive tactics control ability (0.831); choice response rate (-0.908); won bouts (0.769); and won prizes (0.808).

When an athlete is unable to act fast, efficiently and effectively to respond to every bout situation, the inability may be due not only to the natural individual specifics of the weight class and/or deficiencies of the speed control or fight control model, but also to the training process drawbacks/ disharmonies i.e. the negligent attitudes to the speed/ psychomotor qualities building tools or deficiencies in the relevant coaching provisions: see Table 1, positions 3 and 4.

Coaching position #1 implies that the coach fails to customize training loads to subgroups albeit still gives a fair priority to the weight-class-specific speed development tools; and it allows the trainees win the second place in the summarized competitive success rates. This training process design model is partially inefficient since the training exercises are weight-unspecific and, hence the feather, heavy-weight (50-55kg and 90+kg) athletes remain undertrained due to the training pace being inappropriate for them. It is recommended, therefore, to have the trainees split up into 2-4 groups, each with its own training process timing and pacing requirements.

Coaching position #2 implies that the feather-, light-, middle- and heavy-weight (50-55kg, 60-66kg, 73-90kg an 90+kg) classes are split up into two groups, each with its own pacing and timing requirements for the speed qualities building process. As a result, the trainees are tested with the highest complex coordinated motor skills, situation-specific response rates and competitive tactics control skills etc., and, hence, are the best in the competitive success rates. 

Coaching positions #3 and #4 imply that the coaches generally hold on to the weight-class unspecific training models with the only exclusion for the heavy-weight 90+kg class, with the complex coordination motor response, choice response and cognitive processing speed trainings being less intensive for the heavyweight class. The coaching positions #3 and #4 differ only in the time assigned for the heavyweight class to excel the tolerance to external pressures, competitive agility, attack rate, creative thinking, situation-specific response skills and competitive tactics control skills. As a result, the trainees are ranked numbers 3 and 4 by the competitive success rates.

Training process shall be designed in view of the actual speed qualities of the sparring partners to offer them equal progress opportunities. The relatively slower but stronger athletes need to be offered equal (or slightly better in the speed-strength rates) partners to give them no chance to win being stronger only; with the technical and tactical aspects of the training tasks being designed to facilitate progress in the body control, agility and speed of technical/ tactical actions. The individual bouts and fight plans of the athletes will be designed to attain their individual competitive progress goals.

The cluster analysis of the study data confirmed the importance of the speed control and competitive tactics versatility rates for competitive success in the heavier weight classes. The study found the following dominant correlation clusters: the dual correlation of the weight class with the numbers of competitions; and the triple correlation of competitive tactics control skills, technical versatility rates and counterattacking tactics control skills.

Conclusion. Progress of junior judokas in the competitive success rates, irrespective of the weight classes, depends on how efficient the training system is in the purposeful development of the psychomotor qualities and cognitive processing speed to secure high versatility of the competitive tactics.

References

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Corresponding author: kuzmenkoga2010@yandex.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to estimate benefits of the junior judokas’ psychomotor skills and cognitive processing speed building model for their competitive progress. Research methods applied were educational process monitoring, interviews, tests and comparative analyses to estimate the demand for and benefits of the model designed to build up the complex motor response rate; choice response rate; cognitive processing speed; competitive agility; competitive tactics control ability; good receptive response strategy; counterattacking tactics; versatility of situation-specific responses; creative thinking; offense/ defense skills and tempo; tolerance to external pressures; and tactics imposing skills in different weight classes in junior judo. The study analyzes the most efficient coaching models to develop the above qualities and skills; and rates weight factors of the complex motor response elements and competitive tactics control abilities critical for competitive progress and success. A cluster analysis under the study made it possible to rate the contributions of high-speed elements, competitive bout controls and versatility factors, with the following correlated factors found by the analyses: the dual correlation of weight class with numbers of competitions; and triple correlation of competitive tactics control skills, technical versatility rates and counterattacking tactics control skills.