Health self-rating process correction model to prevent reactive asthenia in 13-15 year-old athletes

Фотографии: 

Postgraduate student F.F. Kostov1
Dr.Hab., Professor G.N. Ponomarev1
Dr.Med., Professor P.V. Rodichkin1
1Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg

 

Keywords: health self-rating, reactive asthenia, fatigue, stamina, locus of control.

 

Introduction. In terms of preparation for competitions, athletes’ health self-rating is a subjective indicator of their readiness for competitive performance. Health self-rating demonstrates the current psychophysiological state of the athlete. In case of the low health self-rating, the athlete's competitive potential is reduced. In addition, the negative dynamics of health self-rating testifies to psychosomatic disorders leading to a variety of diseases, including reactive asthenia. Conversely, the positive dynamics of health self-rating indicates good preparedness for competitions and the athlete's resistance to negative factors [2].

The study of manifestations of the reactive asthenia syndrome has made it possible to determine that chronic fatigue is a prenosological manifestation of asthenia. Continuous fatigue has a negative effect on the training and competitive activities. In some cases, extreme asthenization of the body results in temporary disability [3].

In this case, reactive asthenia, not being biologically based, can be prevented with the help of psychocorrective means and methods. Therefore, in addition to the health indicators showing the current functional status of an athlete, it is stamina and locus of control that are analyzed in the process of prevention of reactive asthenia. The increment of these indices suggests an increase in the body's resistance to psychosomatic diseases.

Objective of the study was to analyze the dynamics of the health self-rating process in the 13-15 year-old athletes when testing the reactive asthenia prevention model.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved 19 13-15 year-old athletes, including 9 track and field athletes and 10 biathletes. The sample was tested for 3 months by the author’s reactive asthenia prevention model including 3 stages. The author’s methodology was based on the following mental self-regulation techniques [1] (see Table 1):

  • progressive neuromuscular relaxation;

  • breathing exercises;

  • psychofunctional training.

Health self-rating ability was assessed using a number of psychodiagnostic techniques:

1) Self-evaluation of functional state using the WAN test (wellbeing, activity, mood) by V.A. Doskin et al.;

  • subjective rating of asthenia scale (MFI-20);

  • success and failure internality/ externality rating on two corresponding scales using the "Level of subjective control" test-questionnaire by Y.F. Bazhin et al.

  • shortened version of the stamina test by E.N. Osina, E.I. Rasskazova.

The sample progress was rated by the Wilcoxon non-parametric T-criterion for matched pairs.

 

Table 1. Testing of experimental methodology

Program stage

Week of testing

of methodology

Number of training sessions

Stage content

Month

I

1st

6

Mastery of progressive neuromuscular relaxation techniques

March

2nd

3rd

II

4th

6

Progressive neuromuscular relaxation combined with relaxation breathing exercises

5th

April

6th

III

7th

4

Progressive neuromuscular relaxation techniques combined with relaxation breathing exercises and mental image of "deep rest"

8th

9th

4

Mobilization breathing exercises combined with mental image of "combat readiness"

May

10th

11th

12th

 

Results and discussion. The 1st measurement was taken in March, prior to the testing of the model, the 2nd one - in May, upon introduction of the author's program. The respondents’ functional state was assessed using the WAM method and Multidimensional Fatigue Inventory (MFI-20) scale. The data obtained are presented in Table 2.

The reactive asthenia prevention model in application to the athletes contributed to significant improvement of the respondents’ well-being (p<0.01). In addition, there was a decrease on all MFI-20 scales (p<0.01), except for the general asthenia one. This dynamics indicated the increased health self-rating ability of the 13-15 year-old athletes.

 

Table 2. Dynamics of WAM and MFI-20 indices (n=19)

Parameter

1st measurement, M±σ

2nd measurement, M±σ

Wilcoxon

T-test

p

W

5.68±0.59

5.81±0.59

Temp=11

<0.01

A

5.02±0.93

5.18±0.74

Temp=132.5

>0.05

M

6.25±0.66

6.19±0.62

Temp=92

>0.05

GA

8.52±3.13

7.74±2.38

Temp=45

<0.05

RA

8.26±2.18

7.00±2.33

Temp=6

<0.01

RM

6.95±2.46

6.92±2.25

Temp=35

<0.01

PhA

6.84±1.83

5.79±0.92

Temp=36

<0.01

MA

8.21±2.18

6.42±2.06

Temp=15

<0.01

MFI-20

38.84±5.75

33.68±4.37

Temp=2

<0.01

Note:  W – wellbeing; А – activity; M – mood; GA – general asthenia; RА – reduced activity, RM - reduced motivation; PhА – physical asthenia, MA – mental asthenia; MFI-20 – total points on all MFI-20 scales.

Table 3 represents the dynamics of changes in the respondents’ resistance to psychosomatic diseases. These data were obtained using the "Level of subjective control" questionnaire and a shortened version of the stamina test.

 

Table 3. Dynamics of indices of stamina and internality (n=19)

Parameter

1st measurement, M±σ

2nd measurement, M±σ

Wilcoxon

T–criterion

p

Involvement

22.32±4.74

23.32±4.28

Temp=23

<0.01

Control

15.53±3.17

17.05±2.12

Temp=135

>0.05

Risk-taking

11.16±2.85

11.11±1.49

Temp=79

>0.05

Stamina

49±6.98

51.47±6.28

Temp=8.5

<0.01

FI

7.89±2.16

8.63±2.17

Temp=135

>0.05

SI

4.05±1.68

5.26±1.4

Temp=6

<0.01

Note: SI – success internality; FI – failure internality.

The data analysis revealed a significant increase of such indicators as: involvement, stamina and failure internality (p<0.01). The athletes’ awareness of the importance of the actions performed and own role in competitive failures had bee raised, which positively affected not only the stability of their professional working capacity, but also the resistance to psychosomatic factors.

Conclusion. The reactive asthenia prevention model in application to the 13-15 year-old athletes has made it possible to improve their health self-rating ability as well as their resistance to psychosomatic diseases. We observed reduced fatigue and increased awareness of the importance of own role in professional growth. Thus, the respondents’ overall health improved, which, within the framework of prevention of reactive asthenia, indicated positive resistance to this psychosomatic disease.

 

References

  1. Kostov F.F., Rodichkin P.V. Diagnostika astenicheskogo sindroma i metodika profilaktiki reaktivnoy astenii u sportsmenov [Diagnosis of asthenic syndrome and reactive asthenia prevention methods in athletes]. Kultura fizicheskaya i zdorovye, 2018, vol. 65, no. 1, pp. 139-144.

  2. Kuzmin D.V. Samootsenka zdorovya sportsmenami i ee psikhologicheskaya korrektsiya. Dis.kand. psh nauk [Athlete's self-rating of own health and its psychological correction. Doct. diss. (Psych.)]. St. Petersburg, 2013, 225 p.

  3. Lebedev M.A., Palatov S.Yu., Kovrov G.V. Ustalost i ee proyavleniya [Fatigue and its manifestations]. Rossiyskiy med. zhurnal, 2014, no. 4, pp. 282–287.

 

Corresponding author:

 

The study was designed to analyze benefits of the health self-rating process correction model to prevent reactive asthenia in 13-15 year-old athletes, with 19 athletes of this age group (including 9 track and field athletes and 10 biathletes) sampled for the study. The sample has been tested for 3 months by the reactive asthenia prevention model including 3 stages. The sample progress was rated by the Wilcoxon non-parametric T-criterion for matched pairs. The study data was indicative of the model benefits as verified by the sample progress in determination, stamina and failure internality test rates; in the must-win mindsets and individual responsibility for competitive failures. The mental progress secured by the model was also found beneficial for the professional athletic mental balance and tolerance to the mental and somatic stressors. The study data and analyses showed benefits of the reactive asthenia prevention model in many aspects including the junior athletes’ competitive performance stability and health self-rating process. The model made it possible to secure progress in wellbeing, stamina, competitive success internality and fatigue tolerance rates.