students’ psychophysiological indicators versus physical activity

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Nikishin1
PhD, Associate Professor P.V. Galochkin1
PhD, Associate Professor A.E. Matveyev1
PhD, Associate Professor A.V. Shvetsov1
1Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow

Keywords: students, psychophysical qualities, physical activity.

Introduction. The most critical period for the man’s cognitive development and improvement is university years, when the most significant psychophysical qualities necessary for successful educational and creative and cognitive activities undergo positive changes. These changes are mainly due to the motor regime of students during physical education and sports classes, since, in our opinion, it is this regime of motor activity that determines special relationship between sensations and consciousness. In this view, physical training and sports practices have a strong effect on the functional improvement of both motor and psychophysical qualities of students [1, 3, 9].

The study of the short-term effects of physical exercises revealed positive changes in the mental activity of the subjects, their attention, memory and operational thinking indices. When analyzing the longer impact of physical exercises, it was found that the percentage of those who have successfully completed the curriculum is higher among students with the low and average sport skill levels than among non-sporting students [2, 4, 8]. Perhaps, this is due to the increased physical working capacity rates, as well as the well-developed volitional processes. Nevertheless, there is no correlation between active physical education and sports practices and specific psychophysical functions, which are important in university studies.

Objective of the study was to profile the key psychophysical performance rates versus physical activity rates in students during physical education and sports classes.

Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the one-semester experiment were the first-year students split up into 2 groups: Reference Group (RG), made of students of the core faculty who trained twice a week by the body conditioning program (n=24); Study Group (SG) consisting of sports department students doing various sports (n=26).

The psychophysical performance was rated by the automated PPC-01 Test System that objectively tests the nervous system performance by a variety of quantitative rating criteria to produce the test data arrays.

The Simple Sensorimotor Response (SSMR) test was used to estimate the simple motor reaction time. The Complex Sensorimotor Response (CSMR) test was used to obtain the latent and active response times. The Tapping Test was applied to rate maximum physical actions per time interval and mental to stress tolerance.

Results and discussion. The research findings are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Psychophysical performance rate variations in the Experimental and Reference Group students during the educational experiment

Test parameters

Groups

Initial result

Final result

Measure

%

р

1

Simple motor reaction time (ms)

Experimental

428.7.±40.1

406. 6.±38. 2

5.4

<0.01

Reference

268.5±35.6

266.8±31.8

1.0

>0.05

2

Latent CSMR time (ms)

Experimental

478.4.±44.3

455.2±42.4

5.0

<0.01

Reference

197.8±23.0

192.1±19. 2

2. 3

>0.05

3

Active CSMR time (ms)

Experimental

411.6±38.6

371.1±36.7

10.0

<0.01

Reference

627.2±44.5

157.0±24.5

5

<0.05

4

Tapping Test

 (number of taps)

Experimental

327.0.±29.5

339.8±27.6

3.5

>0.05

Reference

297.5±33.4

302.8±29.6

1.6

>0.05

 

The psychophysical performance rates considerably increased in the EG during the semester (<0.01 and <0.05). There was a significant decrease in these rates only during the SSMR test (by 5.4%). In the RG changes in this parameter were statistically insignificant. The CSMR test showed the greatest increase in the active time. Thus, the active response time in the EG decreased by 10%, while the latent response time decreased by 5% only. In the RG the active CSMR time decreased much more than the latent one, but these changes were significantly lower than in the EG.

The tapping test results in the EG and RG did not change significantly throughout the academic year, with the most pronounced increase being observed in the EG students (3.5%, p> 0.05).

Conclusion. Active physical education and sport practices with increased volume of motor activity were found to have a positive effect on the students’ psychophysical performance rates, with some psychophysical qualities found dominated by the conservative and labile responses. The conservative responses include the latent complex sensorimotor response time and tapping test results; the labile responses include active complex sensorimotor response time and simple motor reaction time. Thus, the neural characteristics are the most conservative, while the neuromuscular ones are the most labile.

References

  1. Izaak S.I. Realizatsiya Ukaza Prezidenta Rossiyskoy Federatsii «O Vserossiyskom fizkulturno-sportivnom komplekse “Gotov k trudu i oborone”» (GTO) [Implementation of the RF Presidential Decree "On Russian Physical Culture and Sports GTO Complex 'Ready for Labour and Defence']. Sport: ekonomika, pravo, upravlenie. Moscow, 2015, no. 2, pp. 12-14.
  2. Izaak S.I. Razvitie studencheskogo sporta v Rossii [Development of university sport in Russia]. Chelovecheskiy kapital, 2016, no. 5 (89), pp. 43-45.
  3. Izaak S.I., Volodkovich S.L. Aktualnye problemy sokhraneniya zdorovya studencheskoy molodezhi v Rossii i Belorussii [Actual problems of students' health preservation in Russia and Belarus]. Chelovecheskiy kapital, 2016, no. 5 (89), pp. 8-10.
  4. Kazantinova G.M., Charova T.A., Andryushchenko L.B. Fizicheskaya kultura studenta. Uchebnik [Academic Physical Education]. Volgograd, 2017.
  5. Nikishin I.V. Neobkhodimost ucheta individualnykh osobennostey v fizicheskom vospitanii studentov [Need to take into account individual characteristics in academic physical education]. Nauka-2020, 2016, no. 4 (10), pp. 54 -60.
  6. Nikishin I.V., Simavskaya A.A., Burashov S.V. Fizicheskaya kultura v obrazovatelnom protsesse studencheskoy molodezhi [Physical education in students' learning process]. Sb. statey mezhdunar. konf. 'Nauchnye aspekty fizicheskoy kultury v vysshey shkole' [Col. works of international conf. 'Scientific aspects of physical education in higher institutions]. Moscow, 2015, pp. 28-30.
  7. Rodionov S.I. Vospitatelny potentsial fizicheskogo i sportivnogo obrazovaniya [Educational potential of physical and sports education]. Nauka-2020, 2016, no. 4 (10), pp. 189-194.
  8. Parshikova N.V., Izaak S.I. Razrabotka strategicheskogo prognoza razvitiya fizicheskoy kultury i massovogo sporta na period do 2030 goda [Development of a strategic forecast for development of physical culture and mass sports for the period until 2030]. Chelovecheskiy kapital, 2016, no. 4 (88), pp. 10-12.
  9. Andryushchenko L.B., Kondrakov G.B., Rostevanov A.G., Vnukova E.Y., Burov A. Physical education department of university of economics: current situation and development prospects. Theory and practice phys. culture, 2017, no. 9.
  10. Zaitseva N.A., Andryushchenko L.B. The introduction of innovative educational technologies in the personnel training process for sport and tourism industries through the application of professional standards. International Journal of Environmental and Science Education, 2016, vol. 11. no. 17, pp. 9923-9930.

Corresponding author: nikita170697@yandex.ru

Abstract

The study was designed to profile the key psychophysical performance rates versus physical activity rates in students by a set of exercise tests. The psychophysical performance was rated by computerized PPC-01 Test System that objectively tests the nervous system performance by a variety of quantitative rating criteria to produce the test data arrays. The test set included the Simple Sensorimotor Response and Complex Sensorimotor Response Tests to obtain latent and active response times; and Tapping Test to rate maximum physical actions per time interval and mental tolerance. The study data showed that the active physical training and sport practices were of positive effect on the students’ psychophysical performance rates, with some rates found dominated by conservative and labile responses.