Annual training cycle design model for elite cheerleaders

Фотографии: 

Dr.Biol., Professor V.S. Belyaev1
Postgraduate L.O. Khokhlova1
PhD D.N. Chernogorov1
E.S. Kolesnikova1
1Moscow City Pedagogical University, Moscow

Keywords: cheerleading, training workload, special training in annual cycle, microcycle, mesocycle.

Background. Cheerleading is a new sport discipline getting increasingly popular nowadays. For some past period the cheerleading teams were considered acrobatic support groups, but lately many of them made progress and now show high performance standards as sport teams. The leading coaches and experts in this newly emerged sport discipline still differ in their training process design concepts [1]. Therefore, today a high priority is given to new long-term training process design concepts for cheerleading sport and relevant progress rating tools applicable at the special training stage of an annual training cycle.

Objective of the study was to test benefits of the annual training cycle design model for elite cheerleaders at the excellence stage.

Methods and structure of the study. At the first stage of the study, we analyzed existing training programs, rules of competitions and competitive performance and progress, with an emphasis on the content of the cheerleaders’ training process at the special training stage of an annual training cycle. Subject to the study were 18-23 year-old cheerleaders (n=28) split up into an Experimental (EG) and Reference (RG) Groups of 14 people each, with the EG trained as required by an annual training program of our own design. The EG training was different from the RG in the number of training sessions, their timeframe and special efficient tools applied in the special physical and technical skills training process.

At the second stage of the study, we collected a set of exercises for the body conditioning (BC) and special physical training (SPT) practices and tested benefits of the cheerleaders’ technical training model of our own design.

At the third stage of the study, we processed the test data by a standard mathematical statistic toolkit; analyzed it; rated benefits of the new training model; clarified and summarized the experimental data; and made grounded conclusions.

Presently the sport training theory and practice apply a microcycle as an elementary unit of a training system design. Having analyzed the available study reports on the subject [1, 4] we designed standard microcycles of the elite cheerleaders’ training process as given in Table 1. It should be noted that specific training sessions are designed with a variety of factors being taken into consideration including: goals and missions; natural variations in the bodily functionality and muscular activity; loads; sets and combinations of the training exercises; work and rest regime etc. Given in Table 1 hereunder are the designs of standard microcycles.

Table 1. Standard microcycle designs for elite cheerleaders

Days

Training session focus

Load

Conditioning microcycle

Monday

Combined technical excellence session

Aerobic capacity building

Shock

Tuesday

Special aerobic special endurance building

High

Wednesday

Anaerobic speed-building practices

Moderate

Thursday

Aerobic capacity building

Combined sequential tasks

Shock

Friday

Speed and aerobic capacity building

High

Saturday

Special endurance building

Aerobic capacity building

Moderate

Sunday

Active rest and rehabilitation

 

Shock microcycle

Monday

Speed building

Aerobic capacity building

High

Tuesday

Special endurance building

Aerobic capacity building

High

Wednesday

Combined sequential tasks

Moderate

Thursday

Technical excellence practices

High

Friday

Combined speed and anaerobic capacity building

High

Saturday

Special endurance building

Aerobic capacity building

Shock

Sunday

Active rest and rehabilitation for the rehabilitation microcycle)

 

Rehabilitation microcycle

Monday

Combined sequential tasks

Moderate

Tuesday

Aerobic endurance building 

Moderate

Wednesday

Speed building

Minor

Thursday

Aerobic endurance building 

Moderate

Friday

Aerobic endurance building 

Moderate

Saturday

Combined sequential tasks

Low

Sunday

Active rest and rehabilitation for the warm-up microcycle

 

Warm-up microcycle

Monday

Combined sequential tasks

Moderate

Tuesday

Speed building

Moderate

Wednesday

Combined speed and anaerobic capacity building

High

Thursday

Combined sequential tasks

Low

Friday

Special endurance building

Moderate

Saturday

Combined speed and anaerobic capacity building

Low

Sunday

Active rest and rehabilitation

 

 

The above data shows the microcycles being different in their durations, focuses and content, with stages, periods, meso- and macrocycles viewed as completed, separate and at the same time interrelated design elements. It is traditional today to rank a mesocycle among these elements. Based on the current theoretical concept of the training process design and with account of the annual competitive schedules, we designed a classical (actually applied) 3-cycle annual training process design for elite cheerleaders as given in Table 2 hereunder.

Table 2. Elite cheerleaders training model classified by loads

Training process components and rates

Loads

Training days per year including competitions

285-290

Training sessions per year

360-380

Training hours per year

855-870

Elements per year

5500-6700

Compositions per year

600-900

Difficult technical elements per year

4700-6000

Body conditioning and physical training elements per month

940-1200

 

It should be noted that the traditional training systems in the competitive choreographic disciplines (including technical and artistic ones) include, in opinions of some analysts, some other special components [1, 3].

The high effectiveness of the new annual training model for elite cheerleaders is largely due to the natural conditions for the training and competitive process being duly factored in the design. At the training model test stage, we analyzed the expert rates of the EG performance including difficulty levels, artistic merits and technical mastery rates.

Study results and discussion. The competitive artistic merits of the EG performances upon the training model testing experiment were rated on average 6.68% higher than the RG progress for the same period: see Table 3.

Table 3. Artistic, choreographic and teamwork mastery rates of EG versus RG prior to and after the new training model testing experiment (х ± σ)

Test rates

Group

Prior to training

After training

After competitions

Technical rate, points

RG

7,57 ± 0,16

average

7,69 ± 0,07

Average

7,51 ± 0,06

average

EG

7,94 ± 0,07

average

8,47 ± 0,05**

above average

8,39 ± 0,05**

above average

Choreographic mastery rate, points

RG

7,41 ± 0,05

average

7,52 ± 0,04

average

7,47 ± 0,03

average

EG

7,43 ± 0,06

average

8,41 ± 0,07**

above average

8,27 ± 0,09**

above average

Teamwork mastery rate, points

RG

7,36 ± 0,03

average

7,81 ± 0,07

average

7,73 ± 0,06

average

EG

7,29 ± 0,04

average

8,49 ± 0,03*

above average

8,45 ± 0,04*

above average

 

Note: *р<0.01; ** р<0.001 versus the RG rates

The EG made a statistically significant (р<0.001) progress in technical mastery by the end of the annual training period versus the RG progress of only 1.58% by the provisional middle of the training model testing experiment. By the end of the competitive period, both of the groups made a minor regress in the technical mastery rates – they fell by 2.34% and 0.95% in the RG and EG, respectively (р>0.05), with the statistically significant intergroup gap being retained (р<0.001). Having analyzed the EG progress in the technical and choreographic mastery domains, we have every reason to state that it made a significant progress versus the RG (р<0.001) for the training period.

The EG choreographic mastery rate was tested to grow by 13.19% on average with the quality generally rated ‘above the average’ and remained at this level by the end of the competitive period (and the training model test stage), despite the minor regress of 1.66% on average. The RG stayed within the ‘average’ range of rates that were tested to grow by 1.48% and fall by 0.66% for the same periods in the annual cycle.

Expert rates showed the teamwork mastery progress of the EG cheerleaders from the ‘average’ to ‘above the average’ for the period of the model testing experiment, with the latter rate staying invariable for the competitive period – versus the RG that remained within the ‘average’ teamwork mastery rates throughout the period of the training model testing experiment.

Conclusion

  • The new elite cheerleaders’ training model includes elements of the classical training program albeit the training process physical intensity was increased. The model was designed to include micro- and mesocycles of special design to effectively manage training loads from low to shock ones over the annual training cycle.
  • The new elite cheerleaders’ training model was found beneficial as verified by the statistically significant (р<0.01) progress in the artistic, choreographic and teamwork mastery rates of the EG versus RG as found by a comparative data analysis.
  • EG tests upon completion of the study (and competitive) period showed insignificant (р>0.05) competitive progress in the test rates versus the training period. However, the EG marked higher competitive accomplishments in different cheer-dance competitions for the study period due to its progress in the technical (р<0.001), choreographic (р<0,001) and teamwork mastery rates (р<0.01).

References

  1. Belyaev V.S., Khokhlova L.O., Bezzubov A.A. Trenirovochnaya nagruzka sportsmenov-cherliderov v protsesse podgotovki godichnogo tsikla [Training load of cheerleaders when preparing for annual cycle]. Kultura fizicheskaya i zdorovye, 2017, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 25-30.
  2. Korotaeva O.V. Tekhnologiya realizatsii programmy po cherlidingu dlya studentok vysshikh uchebnykh zavedeniy [Cheerleading program for students of higher education establishments: implementation technology]. Shkola budushchego, 2014, no. 2, pp. 153-158.
  3. Patrusheva L.V. Issledovanie fizicheskogo razvitiya i podgotovlennosti studentok, zanimayuschikhsya v sektsii cherlidinga [Study of physical development and fitness of female students from cheerleading section]. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fizicheskaya kultura. Sport, 2014, no. 3, pp. 22-27.
  4. Khokhlova L.O., Belyaev V.S., Chernogorov D.N., Bezzubov A.A. Sistema trenirovok sportsmenok 16–17 let v protsesse zanyatiya cherlidingom [Training system for 16-17 year-old cheerleaders]. Izvestiya Tulskogo gosudarstvennogo universiteta. Fizicheskaya kultura. Sport, 2017, no. 2, pp. 187-192.

Corresponding author: belyaevvs@mgpu.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to test benefits of the annual training cycle design model for elite cheerleaders at the excellence stage. Subject to the study were 18-23 cheerleaders (n=28) split up into Experimental Group (EG) and Reference Group (RG) of 14 people each, with the EG trained under the new annual training model designed by the authors. The EG training system was different in the numbers of training sessions, their duration, and special efficient physical and technical training methods and tools. The study makes the first attempt to systematize the training process parameters in the proposed proportions for periods of the annual training cycle. The model offers special sets of exercises to rate the special physical and technical qualities and skills of the cheerleaders at the excellence stage; and special rating criteria to rate the body conditioning and special physical progress in the modern cheerleading.