Microcycle design within competitive mesocycle in elite dance sport

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Aleksandrova1
1Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow

Keywords: competitive mesocycle, physical qualities, elite dancers.

Background. Training in modern dance sport implies a twofold training macrocycle including two separate cycles per year [1]. We applied our accumulated database to design each mesocycle as required by the actual competitive schedule.

Objective of the study was to offer a microcycle design for elite dancers within a training mesocycle.

Methods and structure of the study. A competitive mesocycle is designed with consideration for the following aspects:

– Number of competitions/ events;

– Duration/ timeframe of the competitions; and

– Fitness levels of the competitors.

A competitive mesocycle includes training, competitive and rehabilitation microcycles [4-6]. We analyzed the training system design with account of the competitive and training days as reported by the reference literature, and put together the following frame design for the training microcycle: see Tables 1-4 [5-7].

As a result of the study, we offer the following frame design of a training microcycle with account of the natural lags in the training effects and actual competitive schedules:

– Days 1 and 2: preparatory trainings for a 2-day tournament;

– Day 3: growing share of competitive routines;

– Day 4: dominance of competitive routines and regimen in a training session.

We have also provided similar design for the 3- and 4-day tournaments, with due provisions for the arrival and departure days. Each of the proposed frame designs may be customized by a coach at the microcycle planning stage.

For the microcycle design purposes, we applied a frame structure provided by V.N. Platonov [7, 8] with our ideas for the physical training component and with account of the modern elite dance sport standards. We offer the training loads to be designed as follows:

T+PF – training session combining technical training (T) and physical fitness practices (PF) to maintain high endurance, flexibility and strength rates;

Т – technical training session;

C – competition;

R– rest day;

Given in Table 1 hereunder is the frame microcycle with a 2-day tournament.

Table 1. Frame microcycle with a 2-day tournament

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Trainings

T+PF

T+PF

Т

Т

Tournament

R

The above microcycle shall always be finalized by a rest day to recover, with such trainings excluded from the 3+day competitive schedules (with provisions for the arrival and departure days). Knowing the natural lags in the training effects, we recommend the first training session to be focused on endurance and the second on strength abilities [2, 3]. Given in Table 2 hereunder is the frame microcycle with a 3-day tournament.

Table 2. Frame microcycle with a 3-day tournament

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Trainings

T+PF

Т

Т

Tournament

R

The above microcycle for a 3-day tournament is recommended to include only one training session of the combined T+PF type due to the competitive schedule [2, 3]. Given in Table 3 hereunder is the frame microcycle with a 4-day tournament.

Table 3. Frame microcycle with a 4-day tournament, with arrival and departure days

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Trainings

Т

Т

Tournament

R

It should be noted that such microcycles shall include the arrival and departure days free of trainings, with the competitions taking 2 days; in case of a 7-8-day microcycle, training days are limited to 1-2 only. Given in Table 4 hereunder is the frame competition-free microcycle.

Table 4. Frame competition-free microcycle

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Trainings

T+PF

Т

T+PF

Т

T+PF

Т

R

The microcycle design shall be customized to the actual competitive schedule with the purely technical and combined (technical plus physical fitness) practices being reasonably scheduled.

The physical fitness component of a training microcycle shall be designed so as to maintain the required physical fitness level via trainings successively focused on endurance, strength and again endurance. The coach, however, may select the physical quality that needs to be excelled by a focused training and schedule.

In the competition-free periods, the training process design shall give a reasonable priority to endurance, strength and flexibility to maintain the dancers’ fitness at the required level [2, 3]. Given in Table 5 hereunder is the frame rehabilitation microcycle following a few competitions.

Table 5. Frame rehabilitation/ supportive microcycle

Days

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

Trainings

Rehab

T+PF

Rehab

Rehab

T+PF

Rehab

Rehab

Study results and discussion. Our analysis of the existing training systems applied by elite coaches showed regretful negligent attitudes to the rehabilitation microcycles, with the rehabilitation in elite sport basically practiced by dancers on a self-reliant and uncontrolled basis in forms of active rest or switchovers to some other activities including coaching/ studies. Modern training design models are recommended to give a special attention to the focused and effective rehabilitation models. The proposed frame microcycles were tested as beneficial for the elite dancers striving to maintain their physical fitness levels throughout the competitive season [1].

Conclusion. The frame training and competitive process design models may by applied by coaches with due customization to the individual competitors’ needs and competitive schedules in the modern elite dance sport.

References

  1. Aleksandrova V.A., Shiyan V.V. Spetsificheskie osobennosti postroeniya makrotsikla vysokokvalifitsirovannykh tantsorov [Specificity of highly skilled dancers' macrocycle]. Izvestiya TulGU. Fizicheskaya kultura. Sport, 2016, no. 3, pp. 88-91.
  2. Volkov V.M. K fiziologicheskomu obosnovaniyu postroeniya mikrotsiklov [Physiological substantiation of microcycle design]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 1973, no. 5, pp. 57-60.
  3. Volkov N.I., Zatsiorskiy V.M. Nekotorye voprosy teorii trenirovochnykh nagruzok [Some issues of theory of training loads]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 1964, no. 6, pp. 20-24.
  4. Krasnikov A.A., Krasnikov F.F. Obschaya teoriya sportivnykh sorevnovaniy: problemy i opyt ikh resheniya. Dis. dokt. ped. nauk [General theory of sports competitions: problems and experience in their solution. Doct. diss. (Hab.)]. Moscow, 2006, 436 p.
  5. Krasnikov A.A. Osnovy teorii sportivnykh sorevnovaniy: progr. Distsipliny vuz. komp. tsikla OPD GOS po napravleniyu 032100 i spetsialnosti 032101: [rek. Ekspert.-metod. sovetom RGUFK] [Fundamentals of sports competition theory: program of discipline of high ed. comp. cycle of GPD SES in major 032100 and specialty 032101 [rec. Expert-method. Council of RSUFE]. RSUPESYT publ., Moscow, 2005, 15 p.
  6. Matveyev L.P. O sovremennykh podkhodakh k postroeniyu makrotsiklov trenirovki [Modern approaches to design of training macrocycle]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 1971, no. 11, pp. 9-14.
  7. Matveyev L.P. Problema periodizatsii sportivnoy trenirovki [Problem of periodization of sports training]. GTSOLIFK, Physical Education Theory and Practice department. 2nd ed. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport publ., 1965, 244 p.
  8. Platonov V.N. Podgotovka kvalifitsirovannykh sportsmenov [Training of skilled athletes]. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport publ., 1986, 284 p.
  9. Platonov V.N. Sovremennaya sportivnaya trenirovka [Modern sports training]. Kiev: Zdorovya publ., 1980, 336 p.

Corresponding author: nikiri@mail.ru

Abstract

Dancers’ training process may be described as a combination of relevant design and practical provisions, tools and methods customized to individual traits and geared to attain specific goals within some timeframe/ period. An annual training process may be broken down into a few season- and progress-specific periods (precompetitive, competitive and transitional ones) driven by the sport form building logics which determines the training process strategy, tactics and technology. A physical training process design shall set forth the following two goals: secure due physical fitness for the specific period; and maintain physical fitness at reasonable levels over the annual cycle as required by every period. In view of the fact that the competitive periods in modern dance sport are long enough making up to 7-9 months, the training process design is highly critical for the required physical fitness to be maintained. The study offers the frame training mesocycle design model for elite dancers customizable to annual competitive mission (i.e. tournament schedule within each microcycle), with the special training practices to maintain the elite dancers’ physical qualities at required levels.