PhD, Associate Professor A.A. Povzun1
Dr.Hab., Professor V.D. Povzun1
PhD, Associate Professor V.V. Apokin1
Postgraduate N.R. Usaeva1
1Surgut State University, Surgut
Keywords: biological rhythm, chronobiological analysis, adaptation responses, physical loads, gender-specific variations.
Introduction. Nowadays, when many people suffer from hypodynamia, the role of physical culture is indisputable, as it is known to increase the body’s resistance and its reserve capacities, including those drawn on in everyday life. However, in sports practice, this success rate is not the primary goal, but first and foremost the means to achieve a sports result, and, despite all the benefits of sports, the impact of training can be very significant . Strenuous exercise and intense emotional stress athletes are regularly subject to can cause pronounced physiological changes in the body, and reduction of the body's adaptive capabilities can become the "physiological cost" of big success in sport . So, it is important and relevant to control the processes of adaptation of the body of athletes. Particular concern is caused by these problems with respect to junior athletes, since the growing organism is most sensitive to damaging effects and primarily reacts with changes in rhythmostasis. These issues are of particular concern in relation to junior athletes, since a growing body is most sensitive to the damaging effects and, primarily, responds to the rhythmostasis changes [5, 6].
What we mean here is, obviously, not the harm of sport or physical loads but the need to understand the role and mechanism of influence of these loads primarily onto the nonspecific ability of the body that is not related to sports activities, and assessment of the possibility to thus increase its reserve capacities. Thanks to understanding this, the necessary conditions can be created for the purposeful organization of training in the course of both academic and off-class activities and determination of the types and limits of loads, including physical ones, that are necessary and sufficient for getting optimal results with due regard to long-term effects of such an activity.
Objective of the study was to analyze based on the biorhythmological approach the effect of standard time shifts on the state of adaptive capabilities of the body of track-and-field athletes, residing and training in the conditions of the KhantyMansi Autonomous Region, after the flight through several time zones.
Methods and structure of the study. Comparison of the changes in the biorhythm structure of the cardiovascular system characteristics and the results of the analysis of the dynamics of parameters of the human body state vector (HBSV) in a 4-dimensional phase space by the state of the cardiovascular system  in junior athletes under standard time offset revealed the reasons for the change in the major vector parameter. However, neither the analysis of the biorhythm directly, nor assessment of the changes in the coefficients of the non-specific adaptive capability, revealed any significant changes in the state of the functional and adaptive capabilities of the body of young athletes that could explain this change . Continuing pursuing answers to this question, we attempted to evaluate the gender peculiarities of the response of the cardiovascular system of young male athletes, as gender differences of this response could be quite significant [7, 8].
Physiological parameters were measured in 33 athletes of 16-18 years of age, specializing in speed-strength (sprint) kinds of athletics, all - members of the KhMAR-Yugra team and holders of the I-II sports categories. Simultaneously, all of them flew from Surgut to the area of Kislovodsk to participate in the body conditioning stage of the training camps and then stayed there for 15 days, in the conditions of a zone time displacement and climatic conditions of the region's main place of residence.
The measurements were started 3 days before departure, were carried out during the stay at the training camp facility and ended within 3 days after returning home. The measurements were carried out from chronobiological positions 4 times a day: at 8, 12, 16 and 20 o'clock. The indices measured were: body temperature (0С), HR – heart rate (bpm), BP – blood pressure (mmHg). The indices calculated based on the data included: PP (pulse pressure) (PP = SBP-DBP), ADBP - average dynamic blood pressure (ADBP = 0.42 (SBP-DBP) + DBP mmHg), SV – systolic volume (SV = 100+0.5 (SBP-DBP) – 0.6 DBP-0.6A (ml), where – A – age), CO – cardiac output (CO = SVxHR l/min). The obtained data were subject to standard mathematical processing with the use of the FARS software application . The obtained data were subjected to a standard mathematical processing. The parameters estimated included daily average (mesor), amplitude of rhythm, time of the maximum of the rhythm (acrophase) and peak-to-peak value (chronodesm).
Results and discussion. It should be emphasized that we have already conducted a separate analysis of changes in the rhythm structure in each group, so we do not see any point in mentioning the digital material received. This analysis showed that all major trends in the changes of the indicators and the biorhythm structure in young males and females were the same in this age period. There were not any significant changes in the mesor values, and all fluctuations were almost within the statistical error. That is, the body's functional capabilities of athletes remain unchanged not only during their stay, but also during the flight. The value and relative stability of the amplitudes of hemodynamic indices suggest a rather sufficient adaptation reserve. In addition, desynchronization of biorhythms typical during flights is observed, but it is an inevitable result of urgent adaptation.
This conclusion could be considered final and quite satisfactory. However, despite the fundamental role of the body’s adaptive capabilities, we should remember that they are, first and foremost, a strategic reserve of the body, while urgent needs are fulfilled by means of the functional capabilities. In our case, during the analysis of these capabilities we found their changes to be a steady condition, differing depending on the gender, rather than a response to the standard time shifts. In the male group, the distribution of the hemodynamic load is not only determined by the local hetero- and homeometric types of cardiac output regulation, but also affects the central regulatory mechanisms, while in the female group - these mechanisms are not involved in the process.
Though being subtle at first, these differences can become very significant and rather pronounced in time, as evidenced by our findings [1, 2]. Therefore, on the one hand, we are to start paying due consideration to these differences with the onset of puberty. On the other hand, such peculiarities make us think that they are caused not so much by the flight, but by the training conditions and intensity of the training process. It is these factors that ultimately lead to the inclusion of the central regulatory mechanisms and their restructuring that can provide a stable and adequate response of the body to physical loads.
Thus, the study for the causes of the dynamics of the leading parameter of the human body state vector (HBSV) in the 4-dimensional phase space, observed during the functional stress tests and reflecting the changes in the regulatory signal direction, showed that, on the one hand, in terms of its physiological mechanism, the hemodynamic response to a physical load was quite adequate to the capabilities of the physically trained body, providing blood flow due to the cardiac output. On the other hand, primarily in the male group, the functional hemodynamic indices, reflecting the functional load on the heart, even at rest, are so high that their increase in response to high-intensity physical load does not seem possible. This probably leads to the involvement of the compensatory regulatory mechanisms that in the long term can lead to a systemic regulatory shift in the hemodynamic balance towards parasympathicotonia. The body naturally “minimizes” energy consumption this way, reducing ergotropic and increasing trophotropic influences of the autonomic nervous system.
Conclusions. The gender-specific variations of urgent adaptation, which form the ability to respond with adequate regulatory shifts and associated benefits in young males, are most likely due to very serious physical loads, since no changes in the adaptive capabilities caused by the flight were detected during the biorhythmological analysis.
We assume that the changes of the master parameter and the activity of the central ergotropic and humoral-metabolic mechanisms of the heart rate regulation in the athletes represent the reaction caused not by the flight or preflight emotional state, as much as by physical load athletes are subject to during stress tests, which provoke changes. In this regard, it should be noted that an objective picture of the displacement of the autonomic status may prove to be relevant to understand the biorhythmological assessment of the adaptive and functional capabilities of the body, since even a very stable rhythm pattern observed during changes of the autonomic status can be estimated quite differently and lead to a variety of physiological effects.
In our case, flight is not hard as such and slightly affects the body rhythms. Therefore, their desynchronosis and, above all, miscoordination of acrophases should be considered as the result of physical load that is often inadequate due to the coach's desire to obtain sports results as soon as possible, which, according to F.A. Iordanskaya, may well lead to desynchronosis of the body rhythms, or, which is more probable, the result of the living conditions characterized primarily by rather unstable daylight regime, and, therefore, violation of synchronization of rhythms.
- Apokin V.V., Povzun A.A., Rodionov V.A. et al Bioritmologicheskiy analiz izmeneniya adaptatsionnykh vozmozhnostey organizma sportsmenok pri dlitelnykh pereletakh s vostoka na zapad [Biorhythmological analysis of changes in body's adaptive capability of female athletes during long flights from east to west]. Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury, 2010, no. 11, pp. 95-98.
- Apokin V.V., Povzun A.A., Rodionov V.A., Usaeva N.R. Bioritmologicheskiy analiz sostoyaniya nespetsificheskoy adaptosposobnosti organizma sportsmenov-plovtsov iz raznykh klimatogeograficheskikh regionov [Biorhythmological analysis of nonspecific body adaptability of swimmers from different climatogeographic regions]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 1, pp. 87-90.
- Apokin V.V., Bykovskikh D.A., Povzun A.A. Funktsionalny analiz ritma v otsenke adaptatsionnogo rezerva organizma sportsmena [Functional analysis of rhythm in evaluation of athlete's body adaptation reserve]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2015, no. 4, P. 89.
- Iordanskaya F.A., Yudintseva M.S. Diagnostika i differentsirovannaya korrektsiya simptomov dezadaptatsii k nagruzkam sovremennogo sporta i kompleksnaya sistema mer ikh profilaktiki [Diagnostics and differential correction of symptoms of maladaptation to stress of modern sports and comprehensive measures of prevention]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 1999, no. 1, pp. 18-24.
- Povzun A.A., Losev V.Yu., Apokin V.V., Rabchenuk E.P. Sravnitelny bioritmologicheskiy analiz sezonnykh izmeneniy adaptatsionnykh vozmozhnostey organizma shkolnikov, aktivno zanimayushchikhsya sportom [Comparative biorhythmological analysis of seasonal changes in body adaptabilities of the body of schoolchildren actively engaged in sports]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2011, no. 2, pp. 83-85.
- Povzun A.A., Apokin V.V., Nersisyan N.N. Otsenka effektivnosti ozdorovitelnoy raboty sredstvami fizicheskoy kultury po sostoyaniyu nespetsificheskoy adaptosposobnosti organizma rebenka v usloviyakh detskogo doshkolnogo uchrezhdeniya [Estimation of effectiveness of recreational work by means of physical culture by state of nonspecific adaptability of child body within child's preschool institution]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2012, no. 4, pp. 90-92.
- Povzun A.A., Apokin V.V., Rodionov V.A Sravnitelny analiz izmeneniya struktury bioritmov u sportsmenov plovtsov raznogo pola pri dlitel'nykh pereletakh [Comparative analysis of changes in the biorhythm structure in male and female swimmers at long flights]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2012, no. 10, pp. 89-92.
- Povzun A.A., Apokin V.V., Usaeva N.R. Izmenenie nespetsificheskoy adaptosposobnosti organizma sportsmenov-plovtsov raznogo pola pri dlitel'nykh pereletah s vostoka na zapad [Changes in non-specific adaptive capability of male and female swimmers at long flights from east to west]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2012, no. 11, pp. 92-94.
- Povzun A.A., Apokin V.V., Povzun V.D. et al Ritmologicheskaya otsenka srochnoy adaptatsii sportsmenov legkoatletov pri shirotnom peremeshchenii [Rhythmological assessment of urgent adaptation of athletes at latitudinal relocation]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 12, pp. 96-99.
- Shimshieva O.N., Snigirev A.S., Loginov S.I. et al Bioinformatsionny analiz vliyaniya fizicheskoy nagruzki na parametry serdechno-sosudistoy sistemy sportsmenov pri shirotnom peremeshchenii [Bioinformation Analysis of Influence of Physical Load on Parameters of Cardiovascular System of Athletes at Latitude Displacement]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2014, no. 5, pp. 83-85.
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The study applied biorhythms rating tools to rate effects of time zone offsets on the gender-specific fast adaptation processes in junior sprinters, permanent residents of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Region. Tests under the study were designed to rate, among other things, the gender-specific responses of the athletes’ cardiovascular systems. Subject to the study were junior (16-18 year-old) sprinters (n=33, including 15 males and 18 females). The study data and rhythm structure analyses failed to show any adaptive capability changes directly attributable to the time zone offsets; with the gender-specific variations in the urgent adaptive capability rates (that secure adequate regulatory system transformations and relevant sport benefits for young people) being associated with high-intensity physical loads. We believe that the changes in the main parameter and activity of the central ergotropic and humoral-metabolic HR regulation mechanisms are due to the high-intensity physical loads and stresses rather than to the time zone offsets and pre-flight conditions. It should be emphasized in this context that objective profiles of the autonomic status variations may be highly important for interpretation of the biorhythmic data related to the body adaptive capability and functionality resource; since even the stable rhythms associated with changes in the vegetative tonus may be interpreted in different ways and have different physiological implications.