Jumper technique preparatory phase excelling model for academic basketball

Фотографии: 

N.V. Marchenko1
PhD, Associate Professor AA Ilyin1
Dr.Med., Professor L.V. Kapilevich2, 3
1Tomsk State University of Control Systems and Radioelectronics, Tomsk
2National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk
3National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk

Keywords: basketball, technical training, preparatory phase, electromyography.

Background. The training tools to improve the areal (jump) shooting techniques have been subject to a number of studies [1–3] albeit some questions of importance for the sport theory and practice are still to be answered. For instance, the jump shot (jumper) preparatory phase in the movement sequence and its contributions to success of the shot need to be explored in more detail including the player’s positioning on the court, feet contact with the ground, feet placement for take-off, lower-limb muscle actions etc. These and other related issues are highly important for success of the efforts to develop new training tools for individual technical mastery building on the whole, and this is the reason why we believe the study subject is highly important and topical [4, 5].

Objective of the study was to improve the technical training tools in basketball on the whole and the jump shot preparatory technique in particular.

Methods and structure of the study. In the first part of the study we rated success of the 4.5/ 6.5m shots versus the feet placement in the jump shot preparatory phase. Subject to the tests was a group of 12 athletes who made shots with their feet alternatively facing the hoop and shifted right and left. The test data are given in Table 1 hereunder.

Table 1. Shots from two distances with varied feet positions: test data

Distance

4.5m

6.5m

Feet position

Success rate

Left

Right

Straight

Left

Right

Straight

4,3±1,2*

4,5±1,3*

7,2±0,7

3,2±1,5*

3,4±1,7*

5,8±1,1

 

The above data are indicative of the shots with the feet facing the hoop in the preparatory phase being the most successful. When the feet are turned left or right, the success rates were tested significantly lower with the growing variability ratio. This means that the jump shot preparatory technique is critical for success of the attacks due to the relevant biomechanical regularities of the bodily parts movement patterns.

Subject to the tests and comparative analysis were also the bioelectrical activity patterns of the trunk and lower limb muscles versus the feet positions in the jump shot preparatory phase. The bioelectrical activity in the thigh quadriceps was tested twice lower for the straight feet position versus the feet turned positions (450 and 400mkV, respectively). The signal amplitude was also notably lower in the left-leg calf muscle (1700 and 2200mkV, respectively). At the same time the activity interval for the thigh quadriceps was found wider for the straight feet position versus the turned ones (356 and 247ms, respectively). The bioelectrical activity of the gluteus muscles was higher for the straight feet position (1078mkV/ 2300mkv in the left/ right muscle, respectively) versus the turned positions (950/ 1800mkV for the right/ left muscles). The amplitude growth rate was notably higher for the straight feet position (141/ 418mkV for the right/left muscles) versus the turned positions (59/ 293mkV for the right/ left muscles). It should be noted that the activity interval hardly showed any differences making up 600ms in both cases.

Furthermore, the bioelectrical activity amplitude for the spine straightening muscles was found notably higher for the straight feet position making up 7000/ 6200mkv in the right/ left muscle groups versus those for the turned positions of 3200/ 2900mkv in the right/ left groups.

It may be concluded that the jump shot preparatory quality is critical for success of the attacks due to the relevant biomechanical movement regularities and bioelectrical activity patterns in the trunk and lower limb muscles. Based on the study data and analyses, we worked out the following set of special exercises to improve the offense in basketball.

Exercise 1: The player would start without the ball from the right-hand side close to the mid-line and move at a moderate pace towards the platform to jump up onto the platform with one foot.

Exercise 2: The player would start dribbling the ball from the right-hand side of the platform, move towards the platform and jump with one foot onto the platform shooting a jump shot.

Exercise 3: The player would start without the ball from the right side close to the mid-line, with the second player holding the ball under the backboard. The first player would approach, jump onto the platform receiving a pass from the second player and shoot a jump shot.

Exercise 4: The player would start from the right-hand side to dribble the ball towards the platform acting against passive defence, jump onto the platform with one foot and shoot a jump shot over the defender. In every of these exercises the feet shall be placed right onto the footprints on the platform or strictly parallel to them. The exercises are repeated 15-20 times 4.5/ 6.5m shots, with alternative starts from the court center or left-hand side.

The educational experiment was designed to rate benefits of the jump shot preparatory technique improvement model. Subject to the tests was an Experimental Group (EG, n=12) and Reference Group (RG, n=12) composed of the 18-20 year-old university students. The experiment was 6 months long (October through March), with 4 training sessions per week in both of the groups. The EG training system was designed to include the special jumper preparatory phase excelling exercises to train jumpers with both feet facing the hoop. Every athlete was subject to the pre- and post-experimental tests to rate progress in their special skills, jumping ability and ball control skills in jump shooting.

Study results and discussion. The special skills rating tests were basically designed to rate the jump shot height and success rates prior to and after the educational experiment. As seen from the test data in Table 2 the pre-experimental test rates in both groups were virtually the same.

Table 2. EG versus RG pre- and post-experimental special skills rating tests (5m unopposed jump shots, points scored in 10 attempts)

Test exercises

Test time

X

Sx, р

 

Experimental Group

Jump height, cm

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

74,37±2,06

85,12±2,02

 

< 0,05

Jump shot success rate

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

7,52±0,18

9,17±0,16

 

< 0,05

Reference Group

Jump height, cm

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

75,81±2,72

78,12±2,76

 

> 0,05

Jump shot success rate

Pre-exp.

Post-exp.

7,23±0,19

7,59±0,24

 

< 0,05

Note: p means the pre- versus post-experimental data difference significance rate

The EG was tested with a significant (p<0.05) progress of 10.4% in the jumping ability found by the 5m unopposed jump shot tests, with the shot success rate tested to significantly (p<0.05) grow by 8.6%. The RG also made some progress as a result of the training and competitive process for the study period of 6 months, with the jumping ability tested to grow by 14.5% and the shot success rate by 4.9% and 6.6%. It may be concluded, therefore, that the jump shot preparatory phase excelling model applied in the EG helped improve the jumper success rate.

The opposed jump shot rating tests also showed progress in the jumping ability and shooting accuracy, with the EG tested to make progress of 12.1% and 12.7% (p<0.05) in the jumping ability and shot success rates, respectively; versus the RG that having insignificant progress in the jumping ability and progress of only 6.6% in the opposed shot success rate. The special exercises to improve the jumper preparatory phase technique with an emphasis on the feet positioning were found beneficial as verified by the notable progress of the EG versus RG in the jump (aerial) shooting skills.

Conclusion. The preparatory phase in a jump shooting technique largely contributes to success of attacks in basketball due to the bodily elements being duly arranged as required by the relevant biomechanical movement regularities and bioelectrical activity patterns of the trunk and lower limb muscles. The set of jump shot preparatory phase excelling exercises with an emphasis on the feet positioning was found beneficial as verified by the jump shooting skills rating tests and competitive accomplishments of the basketball teams.

References

  1. Andreev V.I. Faktory, opredelyayuschie effektivnost tekhnicheskikh priemov napadeniya v bezopornom polozhenii v igrovykh vidakh sporta [Factors to determine efficiency of unsupported technical attacks in team sports]. Tomsk: TU publ., 2000. 176 p.
  2. Andreev V.I., Pliev S.Z., Kapilevich L.V. et al Biomekhanicheskie osnovyi pravilnoy i oshibochnoy tekhniki lovli myacha basketbolistami razlichnoy kvalifikatsii [Biomechanical bases of correct and wrong technique of ball catching in basketballers of different qualifications]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2011, no. 10, pp. 80-84.
  3. Portnov Yu.M. Osnovy upravleniya trenirovochno-sorevnovatelnym protsessom v sportivnykh igrakh [Fundamentals of management of training and competitive process in sports]. Moscow, 1996, 200 p.
  4. Kapilevich L.V. Fiziologicheskie mekhanizmy koordinatsii dvizheniy v bezopornom polozhenii u sportsmenov [Physiological mechanisms of motor coordination in athletes in unsupported position]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2012, 7, pp. 45-48
  5. Illarionova, A.V., Kapilevich, L.V. Osovennosti vnutrimyshechnoy i mezhmyshechnoy koordinatsii pri dosirovanii ulisiy v usloviyakh neustoychivogo ravnovesiya [Distinctive features of intramuscular and intermuscular coordination at power graduation in the context of balance training]. Teoriya i Praktika Fizicheskoy Kultury, 2014, 12, pp.44-46

Corresponding author: kapil@yandex.ru

Abstract

It is common knowledge that the preparatory phase in a jump shot (jumper) technique largely predetermines success of attacks in basketball due to the bodily elements being duly arranged as required by the relevant biomechanical movement regularities and bioelectrical activity patterns of the trunk and lower limb muscles. An educational experiment under the study was designed to rate benefits of the proposed jump shot preparatory technique excelling model. Subject to the study was Experimental Group (EG, n=12) and Reference Group (RG, n=12) composed of 18-20 year-old university students. The experiment was 6 months long (October through March), with 4 training sessions per week in both of the groups. The EG training system was designed to include special jumper preparatory phase excelling exercises to train jumpers with both feet facing the hoop. Every athlete was subject to pre- and post-experimental tests to rate their special fitness, jumping ability and ball control skills in the jump shot sequence. The special exercises to improve the jump shot preparatory technique with an emphasis on the feet position were found beneficial as verified by the notable progress of the EG versus RG in the jump  shooting skills.