Modern trends in elite high jumpers' running start improvement domain

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor E.V. Shustova1
PhD, Associate Professor I.V. Kulishenko1
Postgraduate A.A. Shustov1
1Moscow State Regional University, Moscow

 

Keywords: technique, approach, pace and rhythm pattern, high jumpers, individual profile, asymmetry.

 

Background. Competitive accomplishments in the men’s high jump have significantly grown up lately, with the leading jumpers clearing 240+ cm high bars on a habitual basis. The Russian high jumping school is ranked among the global leaders today albeit we have quite a few successful competitors from some other countries like Qatar, Iran and other countries who have recently entered the elite ranks in this highly technical track and field discipline. This is why the growing interest of the sport researcher and analysts in every aspect of the elite high jumpers’ training systems is natural.

Competitive results in this sport discipline are determined on how efficient the following components of the jumping technique are: approach design and take-off speed, take-off angle and postural control in the take-off and bar-clearance phases [5, 3]. The V.M. Dyachkov’s research school has found that it is the pace-and-rhythm pattern of the approach that shall be considered among the key integrated criteria of the individual mastery in the modern high jump. The years-long studies that involved many elite athletes made it possible to find the most effective pace-and-rhythm pattern of the approach sequence with the aggressive triple-stride pace growth in the pre-take-off phase. The modern efficient jumping technique prioritizes the following aspects: pace control aggression; average pace rate; and pace control and mobilization ability with the top priority to the pace control aggression [2, 4].

Lately sport analysts have reported the rapid growth in the numbers of elite jumpers applying the high-speed approach technique, with the individual technical fitness rates being notably different from the power-jumping technique, particularly in the approach phase. In real practice, however, the model technical fitness rates that have been in use since 1970-80ies and typical for the power jumpers, the successors of the Fosbury Flop jumping method are still being widely applied in sport science [1, 6].

Objective of the study was to highlight the latest approach efficiency improvement trends in the modern elite high jump sport.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was designed to analyze the ways to excel the high jump movement sequence in the approach phase, with the video captures of the approach sequences of 34 elite high-jumpers in the XIV World Track and Field Championship in Beijing being subject to analysis. A special priority was given to a few approach sequence specifics including the startup and middle (straight run) phase versions/ styles versus the personal best (PB) results of the jumpers.

The individual technical performance specifics of the approach sequence of A. Shustov, European Champion and Honorary Master of Sport were rated by 13 rating parameters tracked using the video replay processing and analyzing Dartfish software. The test data were mined, processed and analyzed by the researchers of the national track and field sport team and its high jump division [2]; followed by a correlation analysis to find correlations of the approach pace-and-rhythm pattern with the competitive accomplishments.

Study results and discussion. Our analysis of the jumping techniques of the elite qualifiers for the XIV World Track and Field gave the means to identify the following:

– Three startup versions including standing start, stepping start and running start; and

– Three middle (straight run) phase versions (styles) including run strides; jump strides; and mixed-style strides (with the athlete making a few jump strides at the startup followed by the run strides).

The analysis of the HMS A. Shustov’s competitive technique with a special priority to the approach phase shows that the athlete varied the approach styles over his sport career, with the standing startup applied in the 2010 European Championship (233cm), 2013 World Championship (232cm) and the running startup in the 2011/ 2012 Russian Championships (236/ 235cm) with the higher approach speed, pace growth in the final strides, higher take-off leg angle and shorter take-off time. The individual approach technique variations show that the athlete made a transition from the power jump technique to the high-speed one: see Table 1 hereunder.

 

Table 1. A. Shustov’s competitive approach technique rating factors reported by the Joint Research Team in 2013

Rating factors

2008

2012

Competitive result, cm

230

236

Last-stride speed, m/s

7,82

8,25

4th pre-take-off stride pace, strides per s

2,70

2,78

3rd pre-take-off stride pace, strides per s

3,24

3,85

2nd (last but one) pre-take-off stride pace, strides per s

3,67

3,85

Last pre-take-off stride pace, strides per s

4,55

5,0

Pace increment on the last stride, strides per s

0,88

1,15

Average pace, strides per s

3,82

4,23

Pace aggression (mobilization) ratio, AR

1,40

1,30

Take-off time, s

0,180

0,55

Knee joint bending angle in the second stride mitigation phase, degrees

117

121

Hip bending angle in the take-off mitigation phase, degrees

137

137

Take-off leg angle, degrees

47

49

 

Detailed analysis of the fourth-to-last stride timing showed that the fourth stride pace of 2.78 strides per second is notably lower than the pace of the other pre-take-off strides that is indicative of the pre-take-off aggression with the athlete increasing both the pace and length of the approach strides and, hence, forced to lean forward (as verified by the growing knee joint bending angle (117o/ 121o) in the last-but-one stride mitigation phase and hip joint bending angle (137°) in the take-off phase (that is much lower than that of many other jumpers) intended to lower the body mass center (BMC) – that complicates the postural control in the take-off phase. Such a way of individual adaptation to the higher approach speed was found constraining for the efforts to fully mobilize the individual physical fitness resource. It is the height of the BMC and its vertical movement control in the take-off phase that largely determines the success of the high jump.

Our correlation analysis of the A. Shustov’s jump technique rating data showed a high correlation of the jump result with the timing of the fourth-to-last strides (0.979; 0.911 and 0.973) and with the average pace rate (0.961) (р<0.05).

It should be noted that the growth of every pace rate in the jumping sequence with the relevant growth of the competitive results was associated with a reduction of the pace aggression rate (one of the key technical mastery rates) from 1.40 to 1.30 points – that is notably lower than the model values (provided by V.F. Taranov, 1983); albeit the average pace rate was still much higher than the model range [4].

Based on the study data and findings, we would recommend that the athletes applying the high-speed approach technique should accelerate in the middle (straight run) phase of the approach to secure a better speed control in the last strides with a higher average pace rate. Such pace control model helps naturally raise the athlete’s BMC to facilitate the postural control in the take-off phase.

Conclusion. For the approach efficiency improvement in the elite high jump sport, we recommend to:

– improve the approach technique in the following way: run-start the approach with the middle (straight run) approach phase dominated by the run and jump strides;

– take into account the individual functional asymmetry when finding the optimal number of strides on the approach. Approach of the high jumpers who take-off by the dominant foot is recommended to include 7-9 run strides with 3-5 curve strides. Approach of the high jumpers who take-off by the non-dominant foot is recommended to include 8-10 run strides with 4-6 curve strides.

– the modern high-speed version of the jumping technique requires being supported by a set of new technique efficiency rating criteria, particularly for the approach phase.

A special emphasis shall be made on the pace control aggression in the pre-take-off phase, and with a higher priority to be given to the middle phase of the approach that should be considered a key point in the approach sequence. Special attention to this key point will help improve the efficiency of the curve approach phase due to the better pace control/ timing of the sequence. On the whole, the approach phase shall be ranked the key phase of the jumping sequence and, hence, it deserves a special attention of the researchers.

 

References

  1. Ekimov V.Yu., Shur M.M. Biomekhanicheskiy analiz tekhniki pryzhka v vysotu sposobom «Fosberi-flop» [Biomechanical analysis of Fosbury-flop high jump technique]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2003, no. 6, pp. 35-38.

    Itogi vystupleniya i dinamika podgotovlennosti legkoatletov-prygunov sbornoy komandy Rossii v olimpiyskom tsikle 2009-2012 gg.. Metod. posobie [The results of performance and fitness dynamics of Russian national team jumpers in the Olympic cycle 2009-2012. Teaching aid]. Moscow: RAF publ., 2013, 184 p.

  2. Marchenko A.A., Adashevskiy V.M., Ermakov S.S. Biomekhanicheskie aspekty tekhniki pryzhka v vysotu [Biomechanics of high jump technique]. Fizicheskoe vospitanie studentov, 2013, no. 2, pp.11-17.

  3. Zagorulko E.P. Pryzhok v vysotu. Sistema podgotovki prygunov v vysotu vysokoy kvalifikatsii. Ucheb.-metod. sb. [High jump. Training system for highly skilled high jumpers. Study guide]. Moscow, 2015, 88 p.

  4. Ratov I.P., et al Biomekhanicheskie tekhnologii podgotovki sportsmenov [Biomechanical technologies of athletic training]. Moscow: Fizkultura i sport publ., 2007, 120 p.

  5. Shustova E.V., Shustov A.A. Osnovnye tendentsii formirovaniya tekhnicheskogo masterstva u vysokokvalifitsirovannykh prygunov v vysotu, ispolzuyuschikh skorostnoy variant ottalkivaniya [Main trends in formation of technical skills of highly skilled high jumpers with high-speed take-off]. Mater. respubl. nauch.–prakt. konf. 'Problemy razvitiya massovoy fizicheskoy kultury i sporta' [Proc. republic. res.-practical conf. 'Problems of development of mass physical culture and sports'], Karaganda, 2015, pp. 90-94.

 

Corresponding author: ev.shustova@mgou.ru

 

Abstract

The study analyzes the ways to improve the high jump movement sequence in the approach phase, with the video captures of the approach sequences of 34 elite high-jumpers in the XIV World Track and Field Championship in Beijing being subject to analysis. A special priority was given to a few approach specifics including the startup and middle (straight run) phase versions/ styles versus the personal best (PB) results of the jumpers. The individual technical performance specifics of the approach phase by A. Shustov, European Champion and Honorary Master of Sport were rated by 13 rating parameters tracked using the video replay processing and analyzing Dartfish software. Based on the study findings, we recommend that the athletes with the high-speed approach should accelerate in the middle (straight run) approach phase making a special emphasis on the run pace and rhythm to facilitate the speed control at the final stage of the approach including the pace control aggression. Such an approach control pattern is designed to naturally lift the body mass center (BMC) and thereby facilitate the postural control in the take-off phase. The study data were applied to offer a few ways to improve the approach phase, including its customization to the individual motor asymmetry profiles when calculating optimal strides.