Correction of adaptive physiological responses of bodily systems under high physical loads

Фотографии: 

Postgraduate K.N. Naumova1
Dr.Biol., Professor B.M. Kershengolts2
Postgraduate D.M. Uvarov1
Dr.Hab., Professor R.I. Platonova1
1Ammosov North-Eastern Federal University, Yakutsk
2Institute for Biological Problems of Cryolithozone, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Yakutsk

 

Keywords: nonspecific adaptive response, herbal complex, biostimulator.

 

Introduction. Physiological adaptation mechanisms, the body’s nonspecific adaptive response (NAR) being one of them, characterize athletes’ adaptation to training loads of large volume and high intensity [4]. To normalize the initial deviations (transition from negative NAR phases to positive ones), the "Kladorod" bioactive additive (BAA) was used, based on a mechanically and chemically activated mix of ultra-dispersed powder lichen and rhodiola rosea roots and rhizomes [1, 3].

Objective of the study was to develop the method of correction of physiological status of combatants specializing in Wushu-Sanda.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was performed at the Wushu and Qigong Study Center "Nebesnaya reka" (transl. Heavenly River) in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), with 32±10 year-old (n=30) differently skilled combatants specializing in Wushu-Sanda being subject to the study. The athletes were divided into 3 groups: the subjects of Study Group I (n=10) took the "Kladorod" BAA with the rhodiola rosea (0.045 g/capsule) and lichen (0.450 g/capsule) proportion being 1:10 - 4 capsules per day, 20-30 minutes before meals (2 capsules in the morning and 2 in the afternoon); the subjects of Study Group II (n=10) were to take the preparation with the mechanically activated roots (rhizomes) of rhodiola rosea only (0.180 g/capsule) - 1 capsule a day, in the morning, 20-30 minutes before meals; the subjects of Reference Group III (n=10) took placebo (calcium gluconate) in the dose of 1 capsule a day, in the morning, 20-30 minutes before meals [patent RU No.2604126 dated 15.06.2015 Bul. No.34].

The Abacus hematological analyzer was used to run a complete blood count test and determine the NAR phase in the athletes' body.

Results and discussion. The leukogram data based on the hematology profile are presented in Table 1. Their analysis indicates the following specific changes in the NAR phase in athletes specializing in Wushu-Sanda, in terms of administration of the "Kladorod" biological preparation (Group III) and mechanically activated roots and rhizomes of rhodiola rosea (Group II), as opposed to the placebo group (Group I).

 

Table 1. Peripheral blood indicators in athletes

Indicators

Group I

            Group II         

Group III

Before

After

Before

After

Before

After

White blood count (WBC), g/l

6.1± 0.8

6.0 ± 1.3

6.6± 0.9

7.3± 1.5

6.2±.2.1

5.5± 1.2

Leukogram

Band neutrophils, g/l

2.8± 0.5

2.9 ± 0.9

2.9± 0.4

2.3± 0.6

2.4± 1.2

3.4± 0.4

Segmented neutrophils, g/l

47.8± 5.1

58.0 ± 3.7

55.3± 5.5

62.1±4.8

53.8± 1.1

55.4± 3.6

Eosinophils, g/l

3.0 ± 0.5

2.6 ± 0.9

1.9± 0.4

2.6± 0.5

5.0 ± 0.9

2.1± 0.5

Basophils, g/l

0.3± 0.1

0.5 ± 0.1

0.4± 0.1

0.3± 0.1

0.1±0.4

0.3 0.5

Lymphocytes, g/l

37.1 ± 3.5

32.4 ± 2.7

32± 3.2

29.1± 4.1

36.4±2.7

26.6±3.7

Monocytes, g/l

4.7± 1.1

5.4 ± 0.8

5.3± 0.6

4.1± 1.3

4.5±0.4

5.5± 0.9

 

Further, using a nomogram for express interpretation by the L.H. Garkavi’s [2] method, we determined the NAR phases in the athletes’ body depending on the ratio [lymphocytes: segmented neutrophils] / [monocytes: eosinophils]. According to Garkavi, the "positive" NARs are stable adaptation (SA) and stable training (ST); the "transient" ones are unstable activation (UA) and unstable training (UT); the "negative" NARs are "overactivation" and "stress".

In Group I (the placebo group), the share of athletes in the positive NAR phases decreased by 25%, in the transient NAR phases - increased by 12.5%, in the negative NAR phases - increased by 12.5% ​​(see Figure 1). The catabolic and anabolic reaction rates in athletes performing high-intensity loads become incommensurable - bioenergetic processes are activated while the biosynthetic ones are sharply inhibited and without the additional support in the form of ergogenic nutritionals the NAR "stress" phase is formed in the athletes' body (in some cases, "overactivation").

 

Figure 1. Occurrence of nonspecific adaptive response phases

In Group II (taking mechanically activated roots of rhodiola rosea), the share of athletes in the positive NAR phases remained unchanged, in the transient NAR phases - increased by 25%, in the negative NAR phases - decreased by 25% (see figure 1). Transition of the athletes' body from the negative to the transient NAR phases can be explained by the fact that small doses of natural adaptogen improve the functional state of the athlete's body by increasing its reactivity and reducing the total number of strained reactions. It was found that in Group III (taking the "Kladrod" BAA), the share of athletes in the positive NAR phases increased by 20%, in the transient NAR phases - remained unchanged, in the negative NAR phases - decreased by 20% (see Figure 1). Transition of the athletes' body from the negative to positive NAR phases indicates that administration of the "Kladorod" BAA compensates the intensity of catabolic (ATP synthesis) and anabolic (biosynthesis of the new low-molecular biologically active substances and biopolymers) reactions. The presence of the detected changes in the NAR as a result of training bases for us to state that the "Kladrod" BAA as a biostimulator provides better exercise tolerance, increase in the physiological activity of protective adaptive mechanisms and minimization of energy expenditure.

Conclusion. It has been shown that the use of the ergogenic bioagent "Kladorod" makes it possible to optimize athletes’ nutrition; improve their functionality rates; step up the body adaptation to physical loads; speed up rehabilitation processes; and, hence, improve competitiveness rates and competitive accomplishments.

 

The study was supported by the Young Scientist, Specialists and Student Grant administered by the Head of the Sakha Republic (Yakutia) for 2017 (No. 103-RG dated 7th February, 2017).

 

References

  1. Anshakova V.V. Biotekhnologicheskaya mekhanokhimicheskaya pererabotka lishaynkov roda Cladonia [Biotechnological mechanochemical processing of Cladonia lichens]. Moscow: Academy of Natural History publ., 2013, 79 p.

  2. Garkavi L.H., Ukolova P.L., Kvakina E.B. Adaptatsionnye reaktsii i rezistentnost organizma [Adaptation reactions and resistance of the body]. Rostov-on-Don: RSU publ., 1979, 126 p.

  3. Zagrebalny S.N. Biotekhnologiya. Ucheb. posobie [Biotechnology. Study guide]. Novosibirsk: NSU publ., 2005, 75 p.

  4. Smirnov V.M., Duyurovskiy V.I. Fiziologiya fizicheskogo vospitaniya i sporta [Physiology of physical education and sports]. Moscow: Vlados-Press, 2002, 347 p.

 

Corresponding author: platonova_raisa@mail.ru

 

Abstract

Objective of the study was to develop the athlete’s physiological response correction diets including bioactive additive ‘Kladorod’ and test them in application to martial artists specialized in Wushu-Sanda. The study was performed at the Wushu and Qigong Study Center ‘Nebesnaya reka’ (transl. Heavenly River) in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia), with 32±10 year-old (n=30) differently skilled athletes specializing in Wushu-Sanda being subject to the study. The study showed benefits of the new diets as verified by the significant growth of the bodily adaptive response when the additive is administered as required; with the share of the athletes in the nonspecific adaptive response (NAR) phase tested to grow by 20%; and the share of athletes in the negative NAR phase tested to drop by 20%. Thus the study demonstrated benefits of the ergogenic bioagent ‘Kladorod’ that makes it possible to: optimize athletes’ nutrition; improve their functionality rates; step up body adaptation to physical loads; speed up rehabilitation processes; and, hence, improve competitiveness rates and competitive accomplishments.