PhD V.E. Tsibulnikova
Moscow State Pedagogical University, Moscow
Keywords: educational service analysis, triune mission of lesson, health protection, health building, health-prioritizing education technologies.
Background. A major objective of a general education establishment in the values-driven health-prioritizing management is to protect and improve students’ health viewed as one of the key values forming the core of the values-and-senses-based policies pursued by the school management. The teacher’s health-building educational service may be described as composed of school lessons with a special priority given to the modern health education technologies.
Educational service analysis means herein the school management policy geared to explore the educational process development trends and results followed by recommendations on how the educational service quality may be improved. In a lesson analysis, the teacher’s educational service shall be analyzed to rate the following: relationship of the parties of the educational process; teacher’s competency in the core subject; students’ motivations for cognitive activity; teacher’s credentials in the learning process management domain; service quality as verified by the students’ knowledge, skills and abilities tests; and the educational process focus on the developmental and cultural goals .
The process analysis is viewed as the top-priority function of the values-driven health-prioritizing general educational process management by the teaching team based on the problem-and-process analyses geared to design the educational process management on a cycle basis with a special emphasis on the process motivations, management and control aspects. The modern Management by Objectives (MBO) concept that gives a special priority to the process analyses being driven by the process goals and strategic objectives applies analysis as the prime function to open up every process management cycle .
The educational service analysis viewed as one of the functions of the values-driven health-prioritizing general educational process management gives a basis for goal-setting in the process. Objectives of the school health service shall be harmonized with the general goals of every lesson, with the service analysis making a special emphasis on the triune mission and expected outcome of each lesson .
Most challenging for every teacher when attaining the triune mission of a health lesson is the developmental component geared to secure the students’ progress both in speaking/ thinking/ perception/ physical abilities and in healthy lifestyle and behaviour. The cultural component of a lesson shall be mostly focused on the individual general culture and health culture building goals. And the educational component of the triune mission shall provide a conceptual framework for the health lesson design.
In every analysis of the health-protection component of a modern school lesson and teacher’s performance analysis, special attention shall be given to the following performance aspects: first, to the health-protection-and-building priorities of the educational service; second, to the teacher-student relationship and cooperation in the process; third, to the teacher’s ability to manage the process so as to apply and combine education materials, methods, models and tools for success of the learning process; and fourth, to the teacher’s ability to motivate and mobilize students by creating a constructive success-focused and encouraging socio-psychological climate in the class.
Objective of the study was to make an educational service analysis to rate competing lesson designs with a special priority to the students’ health-protection-and-building goals of the educational service design.
Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study were the lesson designs submitted by teachers to the Health-improvement Technology Application Lesson Contest under the V International Research and Practical Conference “Psychological and tutorial support service in personality-centered educational process: union of theory with practice”. 420 primary/ general/ secondary 23-67 year-old school teachers with the service records of 2-34 years, representing every region of the country, participated in the Contest. The health lesson designs were rated in the following nominations: Russian language and literature, biology, chemistry, physics, geography, information science, mathematics, algebra, geometry, history, social science and physical education.
In our analysis of the competing lesson designs, we were driven by the concept by N.K. Smirnov who was the first to introduce the notion of health education technologies in the education science considering these technologies as a basis for the modern health educational service giving a special priority to the health-protection education methods and models; and providing for the existing and prospective educational service technologies being rated by their health effects on the students and teachers .
Our educational service analysis of the competing lesson designs was intended to rate the health-protection effects of the educational service on the students and teacher. Rated by the analysis were not only the lesson content, structure, method and tools and their degrees of customization to the students’ age-specific mentality but also the following aspects: lesson intensity (target rate of 60-80%); educational service forms (target rate of 3-5); average duration of the educational service forms (target rate of 10-15 min); alternation of the educational service forms (target rate of 10-15 min); emotional rest breaks to cope with mental/ emotional stresses (target rate of 2); physical training breaks, including eye gymnastics, dynamic breaks, respiratory practices, articulation gymnastics, finger gymnastics and musical rest breaks (target rate of at least 2 breaks per lesson); postural alternations (rated versus the educational service form); students’ fatigue time (target rate of 35 min); socio-psychological climate in the class (rated by in students’/ teacher’s positive emotions); educational technology application (required to be at least moderate); home task intensity (rated as differentiated and staged); reflection/ self-reflection aspects of the lesson (at least 3 reflection practices, with one obligatory at the end of each lesson).
Study results and discussion. Based on the educational service analysis of the competing health-protection-and-building lesson designs, 214 lesson designs were short-listed for the finals, and only 24 competitors were nominated winners of the contest. It should be mentioned that, irrespective of the competing lesson designs, it was most challenging for the competitors to comply with SanPin 18.104.22.16821-10 Standard, particularly with its recommendations on the following: students’ postural control during the lesson; draught airings of the classes; and physical training minutes and other rest breaks to re-activate the students’ attention and cerebral blood flow, remove fatigue in the shoulder girdle, arms, body and wrists.
- It is health of the educational process participants that is considered the key axiological indicator of the values-driven health-prioritizing educational service management by the education team; with the health lesson management technology viewed as the key system-forming resource for the students’ progress in the individual health culture i.e. the health protection and building domain.
- In the analysis of the health lesson designs in the contexts of the values-driven health-prioritizing general educational service management, we rated the following aspects: focus on the triune mission of the lesson; socio-psychological climate in the class; relationship of the educational process participants; alternation of activities during the lesson; physical training breaks; quality of the education tasks including home tasks; and individualized and differentiated educational process forms.
- The educational service analysis is considered the top-priority function of the values-driven health-prioritizing general educational process management by the teaching team with a special emphasis on the process motivations, management and control aspects. In the health-prioritizing educational service design, the basic health technologies shall be complemented by the relevant social adaptation, communication, art-therapeutic, health physical education, medical, hygienic, therapeutic and disease-prevention technologies for success of the students’ health protection and building process.
- Konarzhevskiy Yu.A. Analiz uroka [Lesson Analysis]. Moscow: Pedagogicheskiy poisk center publ., 2000, 336 p.
- Smirnov N.K. Zdorovyesberegayuschie tekhnologii i psikhologiya zdorovya v shkole [Health-prioritizing technologies and health psychology at school]. Moscow: ARKTI publ., 2005, 320 p.
- Tsibulnikova V.E., Bakhareva E.V. Tipologiya tseley i tselepolaganie vo vnutrishkolnom upravlenii [Typology of goals and goal setting in in-school management]. Pedagogicheskoe obrazovanie i nauka, 2012, no. 11, pp. 60-65.
- Peter F. Drucker. Managing for Results. Copyright © 1964, 1986 by Peter F. Drucker. New York: Harper Collins Publ., 2010, p. 240.
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Subject to the study were the issues of the values-centered health-prioritizing educational service management by an education team, with the educational service analysis ranked as the main and critical element of the service management cycle. An analysis of the focused health educational service provided by a teacher shall be designed to rate, above all, the teacher’s ability to: manage the educational process as required by the triune mission of the lesson; apply the relevant health-prioritizing education technologies and relevant education tools for students’ development and learning process success. Every teacher’s progress shall be rated and analyzed versus the target and actual academic progress rates of the students. The study method was designed based on the Health-prioritizing Lesson Technology by V.Y. Tsibulnikova to comply with SanPin 22.214.171.12421-10 Standard in the teachers’ advanced professional education course Health-prioritizing Technologies in General Education Compliant to FSES (at the Netology Group Online Training Center, Moscow). We believe that the educational service analysis shall be designed to rate the health-prioritizing component of each teacher’s service and practical communication of the educational process participants. A special priority in the analysis shall be given to the teacher’s knowledgebase including the subject competences, proficiency in the health education models, and compliance with the valid requirements to the school health protection and cultivation process.