PhD, Associate Professor G.K. Biserova1
Senior lecturer N.G. Gaifullina1
1Yelabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University, Yelabuga
Keywords: behavioural strategy, training process, ice hockey, junior female ice hockey players.
Background. Modern sports are highly demanding to physical and mental qualities and resources, with the team sports on the whole and ice hockey in particular giving a high priority to the players’ behavioural strategies – for the reason that they largely determine the general course of athletic progress with its interim goals on the way to competitive successes. Every junior ice hockey player develops certain behavioural strategies by the beginner school age normally largely shaped up by the individual culture and personality qualities. Due understanding and control of such gender- and age-specific strategies is indispensable for success of the training process with the relevant individual athletic resource mobilization and personality development benefits .
Modern ice hockey may be defined as the team sport that requires the teamwork being duly harmonized, with the team success much dependent on how well developed the ‘win strategy’ is which dominates in individual motivations and is cultivated via multiple competitive conflicts and situations. Many researchers rank this condition among the key factors for competitive success.
At least five basic behavioural strategies are analyzed in modern psychology which are the following: competition, collaboration, compromise, avoidance and accommodation . We believe that a high priority shall be given to the competition and collaboration behavioural patterns development aspects for competitive success of junior players. Collaboration behavioural strategies are considered the most beneficial for the competitive teamwork, while high competitive spirit is paramount for progress in team sports.
Having analyzed the behavioural patterns of the 7-9 year-old boys and girls’ ice hockey groups, we found some differences in their behavioural strategies that may be of interest for the reason that the available reference literature on the subject, as has been found by our analysis, provides little if any study data on this subject. We have made a special emphasis in this analysis on the studies of the game/ behavioural strategy development in the training process [5, 8]; studies of the 7-9 year-olds’ mental and physiological progress [3, 4]; plus the comparative studies of this age group gender-specific qualities (Yeremeyeva, Khizman, 2001; Velikanova, 2006; Kanatyev, 2015).
Objective of the study was to analyze the junior female ice hockey players’ behavioural strategies shaped up in the training process – based on the prime assumption that the age group behavioural strategies are likely to be gender-specific.
Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the study were junior (7-9 year-old) female (n=20) ice hockey players with the sport records varying from 3 months to 3 years, with the Reference Group composed of their mail peers (n=25).
The training process in both of the groups was repeatedly monitored and analyzed to find the teamwork-driving behavioural strategies, with the analyzes made once in two weeks for 2 months.
The children were tested by the K. Thomas Conflict Management Behavioural Strategies Test adapted by N.V. Grishina to find the dominating behavioural strategies in the training process; plus the Cattel’s 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire adapted by A.M. Aleksandrovskaya to find correlations of the core behavioural strategies with the personality factors. The test data were verified by interviews of the group coaches for summation and categorization purposes.
Study results and discussion. The Conflict Management Behavioural Strategies Test data showed the hierarchies of behavioural strategies being largely gender-unspecific, with the leading role played by the competition strategy rated by 9.8/ 10.2 points in the girls/boys groups, respectively. Ranked second was the collaboration strategy rated by 8.1/ 7.9 points in the girls/ boys groups, respectively. The compromise strategy was ranked third with 7.6/ 5.8 points in the girls and boys groups, respectively; followed by the avoidance and accommodation strategies with their 7.1/ 4.7 and 4.3/ 4.1 points in the girls/ boys groups, respectively.
The above data give the grounds to conclude that the collaboration and competition strategies (critical for success in the modern ice hockey sport) are more developed in the female players. Due collaboration is highly important for team spirit, efficient teamwork and team thinking for success of the game strategy on the whole. The well-developed collaboration behavioural strategy helps the players keep focused on success being driven by the natural ambitions necessary in any sport.
The Student t-criterion was applied to find the minor gender-specific differences in the compromise and accommodation strategies (p = 0.048 and p = 0.039, respectively), with the girls found more prone to these strategies. The differences found in the gender-specific data arrays for the other (competition, collaboration and avoidance) behavioural strategies were insignificant.
To understand the minor gender-specific differences in the behavioural strategies, we tried to find their correlations with the personality qualities tested by the Cattel’s 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire. The group averages for each of these factors were found falling within the moderate test range.
The compromise strategy in the girls’ group was tested with a weak negative correlation with Q4 Ego-strength factor (r= -0.45; р<0.05); with the avoidance strategy correlating with Dominance E-factor (r= -0,58; р<0.01), Surgency F-factor (r=0,44; р<0.05) and Premsia I-factor (r=0.47; р<0.05). The compromise strategy in the boys’ group was somewhat different as it was found to correlate with Reactivity D-factor (r= - 0.54; р<0.01), Intelligence B-factor (r=0.41; р<0.05); and Premsia I-factor (r= - 0.40; р<0.05). The accommodation strategy in the boys’ group was found to correlate with the High Ego Strength C-factor (r= - 0.48; р<0.05).
The girls’ group was found to be more prone to compromises due to a variety of natural feminine qualities including tranquility, frustration tolerance and prudence. Their accommodation strategy is manifested in their expressed dependence from adults and some peers driven by submission, prudence, care, emotional sensitivity and gentleness. The boys group was found less prepared for compromises due to being more rational, analytical, experimental and reactive; and prepared to concede only in case of low self-confidence.
Conclusion. The study data and analyses showed the competition and collaboration behavioural strategies being well developed in both of the gender groups for the reason that due competition is highly important for competitive accomplishments; and the collaboration behavioural strategy forms a basis for teamwork. The team performance monitoring and analyses we made together with the team coaches showed that girls’ performance tended to be more accurate (in distance management, falls prevention, instruction compliance aspects etc.) and more sensitive to approvals from adults (coach and family). The gender groups were tested with the statistically significant minor differences (by the Student t-criterion) only in the compromise and accommodation behavioural strategies that can be explained by the natural feminine personality traits like patience, tranquility, dependence, prudence, care and gentleness. The boys’ group performance monitoring and analyzing data showed them being less disciplined and manageable, prone to conflicts with the coach and peers and less sensitive to pain from falls and collisions. On the whole, they are less prepared for compromises than girls due to a variety of the natural personality qualities including self-reliance, rational thinking, excitability and reactivity. It may be concluded that the study gives an insight to the female ice-hockey players’ behavioural strategies in the training process that are largely due to the natural feminine personality qualities.
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Corresponding author: Galija62@gmail.com
The study was designed to analyze the junior female ice hockey players’ behavioural strategies in the training process. Due understanding and control of such strategies is indispensable for success of training systems in the individual athletic resource mobilization and development aspects. At least five basic behavioural strategies are analyzed in modern psychology which are the following: competition, collaboration, compromise, avoidance and accommodation. We believe that competition and collaboration behavioural patterns development initiatives should be in high priority for competitive success in junior ice hockey. The collaboration behavioural strategies are considered the most beneficial for competitive teamwork, while a high competitive spirit is paramount for victories in team sports. Having analyzed the behavioural patterns of the 7-9 year-old boys and girls, we found some minor differences in their behavioural strategies. Objective of the study was to rate and analyze variations in the junior female ice hockey players’ behavioural strategies in the training process. Subject to the study were junior (7-9 year-old) female (n=20) and male (n=25) ice hockey players. The hierarchy of the junior players’ behavioural strategies was found largely gender-unspecific in the following categories: 1 – competition; 2 – collaboration; 3 – compromise; 4 – avoidance; and 5 – accommodation; with the competition and collaboration strategies ranked dominant. Statistically significant minor differences in the behavioural strategies were found only in the compromise and accommodation strategies more developed in girls and correlated with a variety of their natural personality qualities including patience, tranquility, dependence, prudence, care and gentleness. The study confirmed the prior assumptions on the behavioural strategy variations in the junior female athletes.