Dr.Hab., Professor I.S. Kolesnik1
Postgraduate D.A. Osipov1
Postgraduate F.A. Gatin1
1Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after V.I. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk
Keywords: athletic training system, boxing, afferent synthesis, modeling, method.
Background. Complex motor skills in sports are formed by harmonized actions of the relevant muscular groups driven by the nervous control system; with the individual boxing fitness rates dependent on how successful the athlete is in mastering and applying a variety of motor skills as the fight situations require; with every fight situation needed to be responded with the relevant motor skills. A boxing bout may be described as the sequence of rapidly changing situations to be responded with the relevant motor actions as required to counter the opponent’s actions. This means that a bout cannot be planned by a special program including movement modeling or other elements. The afferent analysis described herein is recommended to be made both prior to and during the subject physical activity to analyze performance and make sensor corrections driven by the dataflow from the working muscles and autonomic systems [2, 3].
Objective of the study was to give theoretical grounds for and test a new afferent synthesizing skills building and sport excellence method for the athletic training and competitive progress of junior (13-14 year-old) boxers.
Methods and structure of the study. Subject to the educational experiment were junior (13-14 year-old) boxers (n=39) of mass sport qualifications split up into Reference Group (RG, n=19) and Experimental Group (EG, n=20). Both of the groups were tested prior to and after the experiment to rate their physical fitness by the following tests: 30m standing-start sprint test; 100m standing-start sprint test; 1000m race test; standing long jump test; shot put (4kg) test; and pull-ups on horizontal bar test. The pre-experimental physical fitness rates did not show any significant differences between the groups (р>0.05). The competitive performance was rated by the following elements: attack and defense actions per round; range finding actions per round; and footwork skills versatility. The individual competitive success was rated on a five-point scale by 5 top-skilled boxing experts. The pre-experimental data and analysis found insignificant differences in the RG versus EG competitive performance rates (р>0.05). The RG training process was designed as required by the traditional training method recommended by the Russian Boxing Federation (2007). The EG training process was designed based on the new afferent synthesizing skills building and excelling method.
It is the boxer’s motivations that are crucial in the afferent synthesis, since the prevailing motivations largely determine the motor skill perception accuracy and the motor skill correction process efficiency in terms of the movement sequence design and content. The goal-setting process in the sport excellence process driven by the afferent synthesizing skills helps activate the cognitive and physical performance; encourage analysis of the training process effects on the individual progress; and develop due provisions for progress in ever technical action [4, 8].
Figure 1. Junior (13-14 year-old) boxers training model based on the afferent synthesizing skills building and excellence method
The goal-setting element or the training program was designed to: ensure due progress in the analyzing skills and physical fitness; find the most efficient training tools and methods; and establish facilitating educational and special provisions for success.
As was found by analysis of the available literature on the subject[2, 5, 8] and our own studies [6, 7], competitive progress is largely determined by the facilitating provisions for and factors of the training process, with the provisions including: timely data processing and response from the relevant sensor systems in competitive bouts; timely response skills since the bout startup moment; fast action selection ability in attack and defense as required by the volatile situations; ability to act efficiently under time pressure; fast data processing and pre-attack signs detection skills to counter the opponent’s attacks. The key factors for success of the afferent analyzing skills may be listed as follows: timely responses to the internal and external triggers in a boxing bout; high quality of the logical and motor control memory; due focus on the mission; attention focusing ability with a special emphasis on the opponent’s actions; and the self-control ability under stresses.
The new afferent synthesizing skills building and excellence method includes: special training and education tools; due provisions for the training process; and the relevant educational actions to secure the following:
- Good control of the boxer’s motivations;
- Special physical training components to improve every element of memory including logical, short- and long-term and motor control memorizing skills;
- Special practices to excel the process control skills to efficiently control the external triggers and focus attention on the opponent’s actions, fight control style, best skills, and individual traits and specifics;
- Startup data processing and application abilities viewed as the key components of the afferent synthesizing skills.
Study results and discussion. Upon completion of the educational experiment, the sample was tested again to rate the physical and competitive progress. The pre- versus post-experimental physical fitness data analysis showed progress in both of the groups with the EG progress being notably higher. Thus in the 30m standing-start sprint test the RG pre-/post experimental test rates averaged 5.89±0.41/ 5.71±0.38 s (р>0.05); versus the EG pre-/post experimental test rates that averaged 5.97±0.38/ 5.62±0.46 s (р>0.05), respectively. In the 100m standing-start sprint test the RG pre-/post experimental test rates averaged 15.62±0.93/ 15.52±0.64 s (р>0.05); versus the EG pre-/post experimental test rates that averaged 15.68±0.75/ 15.21 s (р>0.05), respectively. In the standing long jump test the RG pre-/post experimental test rates averaged 194.9±13.7/ 199.5±8.9 cm (р>0.05); versus the EG pre-/post experimental test rates that averaged 195.1±8.9/ 202.1±8.9 cm (р>0.05), respectively. Much the same physical progress of the EG versus the RG was found by the other progress tests under the study.
The pre- versus post-experimental competitive performance data analysis showed progress in both groups with the EG progress being notably higher than in the RG. Thus the RG pre-/post experimental competitive progress rates averaged 3.07±0.24/ 3.37±0.31 points (р>0.05); versus the EG pre-/post experimental competitive progress rates that averaged 3.03±0.18/ 4.01±0.25 points (р>0.05), respectively.
Conclusion. The educational experiment showed benefits of the new afferent synthesizing skills building and excellence method of our design. The new method with its design versions and key elements was found to help the boxers develop due data processing and response skills and efficiently adjust the training process goals and missions for training progress customized to the kinesiological resource of the 13-14 year-old boxers.
- Akopyan A.O. et al Boks: Primernaya programma sportivnoy podgotovki dlya detsko-yunosheskikh sportivnykh shkol, spetsializiruyuschikh detsko-yunosheskikh shkol olimpiyskogo rezerva [Boxing: Sample sports training program for children and youth sports schools, specialised children's and youth schools of Olympic reserve]. 2nd ed., ster. Moscow: Sovetskiy sport publ., 2007, 72 p.
- Anokhin P.K. Ocherki po fiziologii funktsionalnykh sistem [Essays on Physiology of Functional Systems]. Moscow: Meditsina publ., 1975, 447 p.
- Anokhin P.K. Uzlovye voprosy teorii funktsionalnoy sistemy [Key issues of functional system theory]. Moscow: Nauka publ., 1980, 196 p.
- Bal’sevich V.K. Ontokineziologiya cheloveka [Human Ontokinesiology]. Moscow: Teoriya praktika fizicheskoy kultury, 2000, 275 p.
- Bleyer A.N. Psikhologicheskie faktory obespecheniya psikhomotornykh deystviy v edinoborstvakh [Psychological factors of sustainability of psychomotor activities in martial arts]. Teoriya i praktika fiz. kultury, 2008, no. 2, pp. 28-32.
- Kolesnik I.S. Osnovnye napravleniya povysheniya effektivnosti sistemy sportivnoy podgotovki kvalifitsirovannykh bokserov [Basic directions of increase of efficiency of skilled boxers' athletic training system]. Moscow: Flinta: Nauka publ., 2010, 350 p.
- Kolesnik I.S. Intellektualnaya podgotovka bokserov [Intellectual training of boxers]. Moscow: Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury, 2015, 132 p.
- Nazarenko L.D., Kolesnik I.S. Fiziologiya fizicheskikh uprazhneniy [Physiology of physical exercises]. Ulyanovsk, 2011, 255 p.
- Neverkovich S.D., Kiseleva E.V. Filosofiya trenerskoy deyatelnosti [The philosophy of coaching]. Sportivny psikholog, 2007, no. 3 (12), pp.76-79.
Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
The study offers a new afferent synthesizing skills building and sport excellence method to improve efficiency of the boxing training systems in application to 13-14 year-old boxers of mass sport qualifications. The new model designed and offered by the authors is driven by the afferent synthesis of attacking and defensive actions with their key elements. The synthesis gives the means to set mission and goals in the training process based on the general athletic training and educational process principles; and find facilitating provisions for and factors of influence on the afferent synthesizing skills building process. The skills excelling method includes a set of special exercises; creative physical practices; special educational system; and a set of motor skills rating criteria.
The method piloting experiment made it possible to find internal correlations of different elements of the afferent synthesis; specify every element of motivations and memorizing skills; and every element of the background and startup dataflow. It gave us the means to design the motivations control methodology; develop and improve memorizing skills; and apply the new background and startup dataflow control and analyzing skills in highly competitive bouts. The afferent synthesizing skills building method was found to also help establish due feedbacks in the interpersonal relations; and objectively rate the training progress.