PhD, Associate Professor K.E. Stolyar1
PhD, Associate Professor Т.N. Shutova1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.B. Andryushchenko1
1Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow
Keywords: professional physical culture, industrial gymnastics, beginner gymnastics, active breaks, physical training minutes, active rest pauses.
Background. The growing need for industrial gymnastics is explainable by the following factors:
- Negative trends reported by the public health statistics ;
- Still low coverage of the national population by the sport services reported at only 29.3% by the Russian Health Ministry;
- Industrial reforms in the national economy with the growing demand for a variety of new professions;
- Changing labour environments increasingly dominated by the vision-intensive operations, sedentary office work by the computer, unregulated working schedules, part-time and freelance businesses etc. that are exposed to the growing job-related health risks; and
- Dominance of the intellectual labour associated with high stresses on the nervous system and sense organs with physical inactivity.
Objective of the study was to develop a theoretically grounded industrial gymnastics model customizable to the modern socio-economic conditions, with the relevant model design and implementation provisions.
Methods and structure of the study. Industrial gymnastics (IG) may be described as a set of physical exercises performed at the work site on a habitual basis and designed to improve working capacity, health and endurance (tolerance to fatigue) [2, 5, 7]. Initiatives to implement the IG programs in the work process in the modern socio-economic environments may be successful and beneficial when they are designed to: make a special emphasis on the job-related disease prevention actions geared to improve the mental and physical working capacity of the Group I-IV workers; offer the job-specific IG models customizable to modern job schedules and requirements; apply the profession-specific sets of exercises versatile in the tools, effects and timing (including beginner gymnastics, active breaks, physical training minutes, active rest pauses, background physical movements etc.) and customized to different labour types; and offer the IG model versions for Groups I-IV with due customization for the physiological and mental specifics of the work process.
Study results and discussion. Job-specific conditions and the associating stressors may be basically classified as follows: intellectual jobs may be stressful due to extended and/or variable workdays, particularly on shifts; business trips; work under time pressure; attention-intensive long-lasting operations; too high flow of inputs (signals and messages) for a short period of time; too high difficulty levels of job missions; too high responsibility; and high exposure to the job-related risks; vision-intensive jobs may be stressful due to the high accuracy required; high requirements to coordination of the sensor and motor elements in the work process i.e. the visual system required to be highly and precisely coordinated with physical operations; too high time working with application of optical instruments, monitors and computers; physical jobs may be stressful due to the high dynamic and static muscular loads in the weight handling operations; high muscular tension required to work with controls and hand tools; monotonous repeated upper limb movement sequences; high-amplitude trunk bends; long-lasting tense and physiologically unhealthy operational postures etc. [4, 8].
To facilitate solutions and offer practical toolkits to mitigate the harmful environmental conditions and improve the working capacity of industrial personnel, the industrial professions were classified into four groups by the V.I. Ilyinich’s (2000) classification, and a special set of exercises was recommended for each of the following groups. Group I professions dominated by nervous stresses with moderate physical loads and monotonous operations (e.g. minor unit assemblers, cheese makers, electric lamp assemblers, punchers, electric sewing machine operators etc.); Group II professions that imply combination of physical and intellectual jobs with moderate and reasonably versatile physical loads (e.g. lathe operators, milling machine operators, planers, motor assemblers, theatrical artists, confectioners), with the physical operations dominated by standing postures with frequent changes of dynamic and static movements, with the permanent eye and attention strain of vision; Group III professions that require versatile operations with high physical stresses (e.g. molders, rollers, miners, construction workers etc.); Group IV professions that require high-intensity intellectual efforts (e.g. physicians, engineers, dispatchers, administrators, bibliographers, chemical lab personnel, sales managers, advanced education system specialists, technical equipment operators, accountants etc.). As per the above V.I. Ilyinich’s (2000) classification, the existing pool of 1600 professions may be categorized as follows: 292 professions (18%) ranked with Class I; 599 professions (37%) ranked with Class II; 98 professions (6%) ranked with Class III; and 621 professions (39%) ranked with Class IV.
The industrial gymnastics model proved beneficial in many applications was designed to mitigate the harmful effects for each of the above professional groups. The physical exercises and other tools in the industrial gymnastics complex by their effects on the trainees’ bodies may be provisionally classified into the following categories: exercises intended to improve the blood circulation in the limbs and internal organs and counter the job-specific physical inactivity; visual stress mitigation exercises (eyes gymnastics, active rest, walking practices, physical training minutes); flexibility exercises for joints with elements of fitness yoga, stretching, back workout, shoulders stretching etc. [3, 6]; endurance exercises with an emphasis on the working capacity building and cardiovascular system performance improvement including basics of fitness, step walking, treadmill practices etc.; strength exercises intended to improve the muscular group tonuses in small muscle groups (e.g. weight exercises with 0.5L bottles; squats, push-ups from a chair, and back working exercises); mental and physical stress mitigation exercises with group elements and autogenic practices, with basic yoga, stretching, body conditioning practices, shoulders stretching etc. [3, 6]. The IG complexes for Group I are dominated by dynamic practices with high movement amplitudes designed to involve the key muscle groups and activate the cardiovascular and respiratory systems. Special attention in the complexes is given to the postural control and blood circulation intensifying practices for pelvis and lower limbs. The IG complexes for Group II are dominated by the dynamic practices with relaxation elements, with a special emphasis on the muscle groups other than mostly engaged in the job-specific operations. The upper limbs and shoulder girdle working exercises are designed to improve the blood circulation with an emphasis on relaxation, plus swings and sitting practices for the professions that imply high loads on the lower limbs. The Group III practices are dominated by sitting and some prone exercises in the relevant special conditions, with the practices intended to mitigate stresses, improve blood circulation in the key working muscles, activate the respiratory function, relieve the backbone and feet (e.g. by stretching, self-massage, sitting and shoulders stretching exercises). The Group III practices are dominated by the versatile high-amplitude swing exercises intended to radically change the movement patterns and thereby refresh and improve the professional working capacity, secure due body conditioning process and improve the blood circulation. The IG practices are designed to give a special priority to the lower limbs working exercises to facilitate blood circulation in every bodily part including brain and remove haemostasia in pelvis and lower limbs. The IG complexes are recommended to make an emphasis on the standing practices with elements of fitness, stretching, walking and back working practices. The elementary IG forms including the physical training breaks and active rest pauses may be applied when the occasion requires albeit at least after every 1.5-2 hours of uninterrupted work, regardless of the work class.
Conclusion. The industrial gymnastics model applicable by industries of any ownership status was found beneficial as it gives the means to improve the labour efficiency and thereby the economic progress on the whole; encourage healthy lifestyle, habitual physical practices and sport services for different population groups and, hence, attain the objectives set forth by the relevant programmatic and regulatory documents.
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Positive experience of industrial gymnastics accumulated by different public and private companies acting in the new economic situation may be applied to improve the economic process efficiency on the whole, encourage healthy lifestyle, habitual physical practices and sport services for different population groups and, hence, attain the objectives set forth in the relevant programmatic and regulatory documents. To facilitate solutions and offer practical toolkits to mitigate the harmful environmental conditions and improve the working capacity of industrial personnel, the industrial professions were classified into four groups as provided by the V.I. Ilyinich’s (2000) classification, and a special set of industrial gymnastic exercises was recommended for each of the groups. Authors of the study conclude that this industrial gymnastics model implemented in different public and private companies will help improve the economic process efficiency on the whole, facilitate healthy lifestyle, habitual physical practices and sports for different population groups and, hence, attain the objectives set forth in the relevant national programmatic and regulatory documents.