Postgraduate I.A. Mingalisheva1
Dr.Hab., Professor L.D. Nazarenko1
Dr.Hab., Professor I.N. Timoshina1
1Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University named after V.I. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk
Keywords: fitness aerobics, sport training system, modeling, method.
Background. Traditional forms of children’s and junior physical education, health improvement and mass sport services are rapidly losing their popularity as they are not versatile and customizable enough to meet the modern demands for lively, physically intensive and emotionally rich activities. This is the reason why the national sport communities give a growing priority to new forms of physical education and sports to respond the fast-changing needs of the new generations [1-8].
Objective of the study was to provide theoretical grounds for and test benefits of the new execution mastery improvement model for fitness aerobics.
Methods and structure of the study. Benefits of the new execution mastery improvement model were tested by an educational experiment, with 15-19 year-old female athletes (n=28) qualified Class I Athletes and Candidate Masters of Sport sampled for the experiment. The sample was split up into Reference Group (RG) and Experimental Group (EG) of 14 people each. The pre-experimental physical fitness, technical skills and execution mastery of the groups was rated by the following tests. Physical fitness was rated by the 100m sprint test; standing long jump test; arm rest push-ups test; crunches test; and 2000m race test. Technical skills were rated by the following rating criteria: routine execution accuracy and smoothness; distribution of original elements in the routine; and routine difficulty level. Execution mastery was rated by the following rating criteria: movement expressivity rate; musical illustration and movement harmony; and synch rate of the movement sequences. The technical skills and mastery levels were rated by an expert team of 5 top-skilled fitness aerobics specialists on a five-point scale. The EG versus RG pre-experimental fitness/ mastery rates showed insignificant differences.
The RG training process was designed as required by the traditional training model compliant to the valid standards of the Russian Sport Aerobics and Fitness Federation. The EG training process was driven by the execution mastery excelling model of our own design. The training model includes a set of sprint/ race and jumping practices to build general/ special endurance, speed, muscular strength, agility, accuracy and other physical and coordination qualities; static and dynamic exercises, including strength building, jumping, dancing, aesthetics-focused, expressive postures and gestures mastering practices etc. The routine execution mastery was excelled by the relevant dance/ choreographic tools including modern (funk, hip-hop, jazz, break-dance), Latin (mambo, merengue, tango, samba), African, oriental, historical (waltz, rock-n-roll etc.) dances. We also applied a variety of the most common fitness aerobics training methods including stream, serial-stream, repeat, intermittent, game, competitive and circuit ones. The training model also included a variety of technical progress rating criteria and tests. The new execution mastery improvement model makes a special emphasis on the following missions (functions) of the fitness aerobics training process: health improvement, developmental, body shaping, self-discovery, self-perfection, self-fulfillment, adaptation and correction ones.
Technical skills building training was designed to improve routine execution accuracy and smoothness; distribution of original elements in a routine; routine difficulty level; and choreographic quality and physical intensity of routines.
Execution mastery building training was designed to improve the movement expressivity and line smoothness rates; musical illustration and movement harmony; and synch rate of the movement sequences.
The new execution mastery excelling model for modern fitness aerobics was designed based on the following conceptual provisions (see Figure 1 hereunder) setting the frame logics for the training process geared to excel the personality qualities and physical and coordination abilities for success of the self-perfection and self-fulfillment process.
Study results and discussion. The post- versus pre-experimental physical fitness and technical skills rates and executive mastery rates showed progress in both of the groups, with the EG progress being rated notably higher versus the RG. Thus the pre-/post-experimental 100m sprint test rates were 15.60±0.11/ 15.36±0.09 s in the RG (р>0.05); versus 15.68±0.13/ 15.11±0.09 s in the EG (р>0.05), respectively. The pre-/post-experimental standing long jump test rates were 189.1±2.05/ 192.2±3.6 cm in the RG (р>0.05); versus 188.6±3.6/ 199.8±2.7 cm in the EG (р>0.05), respectively. The pre-/post-experimental arm rest push-ups test rates in the RG were 11.5±0.24/ 13.1±0.16 reps (р>0.05); versus the EG rates of 11.0±0.19/ 17.6±0.15 reps (р>0.05), respectively. The EG showed much the same progress in other progress tests including the 2000m race and crunches tests.
The group progress in technical skills was rated by the routine execution accuracy and smoothness; distribution of the original elements in the routine; routine difficulty level; choreographic quality and physical intensity of the routines. Thus, the pre-/post-experimental technical skills test rates were 3.87±0.12/ 3.96±0.15 points in the RG (р>0.05); versus 3.83±0.18/ 4.29±0.12 points in the EG (р<0.25).
The group progress in execution mastery was rated by the movement expressivity and line smoothness rates; musical illustration and movement harmony; and synch rate of the movement sequences. Thus, the pre-/post-experimental execution mastery test rates in the RG were 3.77±0.19/ 3.89±0.17 points (р>0.05); versus 3.71±0.20/ 4.28±0.15 points in the EG (р<0.05).
Conclusion. The new execution mastery improvement model for modern fitness aerobics was found beneficial as it makes it possible to creatively customize the training process, forecast the trainees’ progress based on their individual kinesiological resource being explored and mobilized.
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Fitness aerobics is a highly popular sport discipline due to, among other things, its health improvement, developmental, body shaping, self-discovery, self-perfection and self-fulfillment effects and potentials. Children and adolescents are lured in the sport by its self-expression, self-confidence-building and self-discovery potentialities. Fitness aerobics is known to facilitate, conditional on the systemic training practices, the body shaping (phenotypic status improvement) efforts, improve the body adaptive capability and corrective potential, and these aspects also attract young people to the sport.
We have developed an execution mastery improvement model for the modern fitness aerobics based on the key concepts and logics of the modern athletic training systems. The study analyses the key educational provisions and factors of influence on the training and competitive progress rates. The execution mastery improvement model includes special exercises to develop movement coordination qualities; shape up the individual movement rhythms; improve the movement/ musical culture and expressivity. The model helps the athletes discover themselves, mobilize their intellectual and volitional resources, and improve movement plasticity and expressivity. The educational experiment under the study proved benefits of the new execution mastery improvement model.