Emotional burnout as contributor to negative personality changes in professional athletes

Фотографии: 

PhD, Associate Professor I.A. Koretskaya1
PhD, Associate Professor N.V. Dneprovskaya2
PhD I.V. Shevtsova3
PhD, Associate Professor M.N. Mikhailovsky4
1
Plekhanov Russian University of Economics, Moscow
2Financial University under the Government of the Russian Federation, Moscow
3Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow
4I.M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University, Moscow

 

Keywords: emotional burnout syndrome, handball, social adaptation, activity.

Introduction. One of the dominant trends in modern sports is the increasing role of mental conditioning for athletes aimed to achieve high results in extreme competitive conditions. Mental conditioning is just as important as physical and special training [1, 3, 5]. During competitions with the participation of highly-skilled teams, a team can win if its members are characterized by a strong and stable psyche, are able to keep their feelings and emotions under control, manage their behaviour, sports activities [2], demonstrating high results within the system "pass plus goal".

Objective of the study was to analyse the effects of emotional burnout on the social adaptability of handball players.

Methods and structure of the study. The study was conducted in two stages. At the first stage 62 handball players were split up into 2 groups: with and without indications of EBS (Boyko’s Emotional Burnout Test). The group with already formed and developing emotional burnout syndrome included 42 people, the group without any indications of EMS - 20 people.

Personal psychological characteristics of the handball players were studied using the "Self-actualization test" (SAT). The test included a list of 126 items, each offering two alternative value judgments regarding man’s approach to life, attitude to other people and himself. The authors of the test believe that low-level self-actualization testifies to major personality development defects, "distortion" of a number of the most important (for the society) human needs, which may serve as a basis for attributing people with low indicators to the "risk zone".

Results and discussion. To determine the differences in the personality traits of athletes with and without indications of EBS, a comparative analysis of their personal characteristics was carried out. We used the Mann-Whitney U test to verify the statistically significant differences between the results obtained in both of the groups. The comparative analysis data are presented in Table 1.

Table 1. Analysis of personal psychological characteristics of handball players with different levels of EBS

Groups

Competency in time

Support

Value orientation

Flexibility

Self-sensitivity

Spontaneity

Self-esteem

Self-acceptance

Sense of other people

Synergism

Tolerance to aggression

In-touch capabilities

Cognitive need

Creativity

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

12

13

14

1*

10,9

55,3

14,8

14,3

8,6

8,1

5,1

11,2

12,7

9,8

8,1

6,28

8,4

8,8

2**

13

55

16,4

20,3

10,1

9,9

5,4

12

16,6

11,3

15,0

10,5

9,3

12,5

Uemp

 

18

60

77,5

69,5

69,5

57,5

63

102

104

72

106,5

19

74

1

p≤

0.01

0,05

insign.

0,05

0,05

0,05

0,05

insign.

insign.

0,05

insign.

0,01

insign.

0,01

Note: 1* – group with indications of EBS; 2** – group without indications of EBS.

The analysis of personal characteristics of the handball players with different levels of EBS revealed that the players with indications of EBS are characterized by such qualities as incompetency in time, lack of creativity, spontaneity, in-touch capabilities and flexibility, and intolerance to own testiness as a natural manifestation of human nature.

And vice versa, athletes with undeveloped EBS live in the present and their worldview is holistic; they respond to a changing situation more quickly; have a propensity for creativity, and are characterized by natural behavior; their emotional relationships with people are deep and close; they take their own testiness as a natural manifestation of human nature. Based on the results obtained, we can assume that the above-mentioned personal traits of handballers without indications of EBS enable them to achieve high sports results.

Conclusion

Emotional burnout syndrome (EBS) is among the phenomena of personality deformation and represents a multidimensional construct, a set of negative and psychological experiences associated with long and intense interpersonal interactions, characterized by high emotional saturation or cognitive complexity [4].

The sources of EBS in handball players are as follows: specifics of sports activity, high motivation and focused efforts, mental agility, high cost of an individual error, fear of injury, frequent departures, interpersonal conflicts (with coach, team members, etc.).

The analysis of the results of the experimental psychological research indicates that emotional burnout causes a negative impact on the professional performance of athletes, their social adaptation, and contributes to the accumulation of negative personal characteristics and reduced ability to effectively interact within the system of interpersonal relationships.

References

  1. Vasyakin B.S., Pozharskaya E.L., Deberdeeva N.A. Problema stressa i issledovanie stepeni stressoustoychivosti sotrudnikov s ispolzovaniem suschestvuyuschikh metodik [The problem of stress and study of stress tolerance of employees using existing techniques]. Uspekhi sovremennoy nauki i obrazovaniya, 2016, vol. 2, no. 3.
  2. Kokoulova O.P., Bazhdanova J.V. Osnovnye motivatsionnye napravleniya razvitiya fizicheskoy kultury i sporta v sovremennom obschestve [Major motivation directions of development of physical culture and sports in modern society]. Fizicheskaya kultura i sport. Turizm. Dvigatelnaya rekriatsiya, 2016, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 17-24.
  3. Koretskaya I.A., Kuprina O.A., Manukhina S.Y. Funktsionalnye sostoyaniya kak pokazatel effektivnosti deyatelnosti [Functional states as an indicator of efficiency of activity]. Vestnik GUU, 2014, no. 9, pp. 264-266.
  4. Shukshina L.V. Ekzistentsialnaya tsennost sotsialnykh illyuziy. Dis. dokt. filosof. Nauk [Existential value of social illusions. Doctoral Diss. (Phil.)]. Saransk, 2010.
  5. Dneprovskaya N., Koretskaya I., Dik V., Tiukmenova K. Study of social media implementation for transfer of knowledge within educational milieu. Scientific bulletin of national Mining University, No.4, Ukraine: Dnepropetrovsk.

Corresponding author: fizkult@teoriya.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to analyse the effects of emotional burnout on the social adaptability of handball players. We applied a variety of research methods at different stages of the study as dictated by the relevant goals including: theoretical and practical data analysis; diagnostic self-tests; and V.V. Boyko’s Emotional Burnout Test; with the test data being statistically processed using the Mann-Whitney U-criterion. The experiments and psychological tests under the study were performed at the Moscow Handball Federation. Subject to the study were 62 professional handball players of 17-24 years of age split up into two groups: with and without indications of an emotional burnout. The subjects were tested to rate their personal mental statuses. The study data and analyses gave the grounds to confirm that an emotional burnout causes a negative impact on the professional efficiency of athletes. Both of the groups of the subjects were tested with different personality qualities. The emotional burnout syndrome (EBS) was found to contribute to the negative personality changes that, in their turn, are detrimental to the social adaptation.