Individualised physical education model driven by anthropometric and fitness shape rates in application to future teachers

Фотографии: 

PhD S.R. Sharifullina1
PhD, Associate Professor V.A. Martynova1
PhD, Associate Professor A.A. Askhamov1
J.K. Zhestkova1
1
Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University, Elabuga

 

Keywords: differential approach, physical education, physical culture, morphofunctional characteristics, future teacher.

Introduction. Nowadays, the issue of future teachers’ health is to be viewed from two sides: on the one hand, students should be treated as young people whose health level is low. According to N.G. Kozhevnikova, 90% of entrants have health deviations, and up to 50% are diagnosed with chronic diseases [3, p.13]; on the other hand, they should be treated as those propagating the values of a healthy way of life in educational institutions. The educational process at school will be more effective if teachers themselves have the psychophysiological characteristics corresponding to the healthy lifestyle, since “no educational program will be effective if a teacher is not the main example to follow” [1, p. 20].

The modern system of higher education aims to create conditions not only for preservation of the current level of health, but also for its recovery and promotion (N.I. Aizman, R.I. Aizman, A.V. Lebedev, L.I. Lubysheva, V.B. Rubanovich, T.D. Trishkina) [4, 5, 6]. Morphofunctional characteristics are one of the main indicators of health level; therefore, to determine the optimal approach to the organization of physical education of students, these individual characteristics need to be taken into account. M.G. Ishmukhametov believes that "nowadays, it makes sense to talk about such educational measures, which would make it possible for the body to optimize the work of its organs and systems by itself". Among such measures is physical education, which, due to the intensification of motor activity, enhances man’s adaptive potential [2, p.6].

Objective of the study was to analyse the effects of the differential approach to the organization of university physical education of future teachers based on their morphofunctional characteristics

Methods and structure of the study. We studied the morphofunctional characteristics using the standardized methods: measurement of heart rate, systolic arterial pressure, body-weight ratio, vital capacity, Ruffier index, level of adaptive capabilities of the body and circulatory system, birth-death ratio, Skibinsky index, Apanasenko’s health rating method. The study data were processed using the methods of mathematical statistics.

Subject to the study were 204 1st-2nd-year students of Elabuga Institute of FSAEI HE “Kazan (Volga region) Federal University” majoring in Pedagogical Education. 25 students formed the reference group. While in the reference group the physical education program was built strictly in accordance with the curriculum, in the study groups (SG1, SG2, SG3) physical education lessons were carried out with due regard to the individual morphofunctional characteristics of the students.

Formation in future teachers of the needs for health improvement requires an integrated approach to the process of organization of university physical education.

The basic unit of the program “Elective physical education and sports course” consists of the following sections: track and field athletics, cross-country skiing, gymnastics and sports games; in the versatile unit we pay attention to the individualised development of the student driven by his/her physiological characteristics.

At the first stage, the teachers, along with a medical worker, assess the functional capabilities and motor activity of the student. At the second stage, based on the results obtained, they develop an individualized program with due regard to his/her functional capabilities and motor activity rates so the work of the physical education teacher with the given student could be more efficient.

Throughout the entire training period, the teacher and the medical worker provided the scientific and methodological support of the students’ physical activity.

The faculty teachers selected the following health-improving technologies for the students: breathing exercises by A.N. Strelnikova, K.P. Buteyko, Kofler-Lobanova-Lukyanova method, respiratory gymnastics with the pronunciation of sounds, yoga elements, qigong gymnastics, non-traditional types of gymnastics, S.M. Bubnovsky's technique, pilates, jogging, shaping, callanetics, various types of aerobics, therapeutic swimming, cross-country skiing, crossfit, various sets of health promotion exercises.

Sport and recreational activities are regularly held at Elabuga Institute of KFU: Spartakiad among first-year student, Spartakiad among students, Health Day, Fitness Marathon, Health Lesson and so on. The final event here is “RLD Festival”, where students demonstrate the level of formation of such competence as the ability to “maintain a proper level of physical fitness to ensure an adequate social and professional activity”.

Results and discussion. As follows from the study, the heart rate and systolic arterial pressure indices increased in all groups (Table 1).

Table 1. Mean heart rate and systolic blood pressure values

Group

HR at rest, bpm

SBP, mmHg

before

after

before

after

RG

65.952.57

64.952.48

117.452.99

115.21.94

SG1

80.944.11

75.883.02

119.52.43

115.6251.6

SG2

84.882.16

81.691.96

113.721.28

113.5310.89

SG3

79.682.36

77.471.94

116.471.18

113.4410.89

It should be noted that in the Reference Group this indicator was initially high.

The body-weight ratio remained practically unchanged throughout the experiment and was adequate in all groups, while the analysis of the vital capacity mean values revealed certain changes (Table 2). However, the Study Groups could not reach even the initial level of the Reference Group.

Table 2. Mean values of body-weight ratio and vital capacity

Group

Body-weight ratio, g/cm

VC, ml

before

after

before

after

RG

357.3610.71

359.3510.12

3365143.32

3445147.52

SG1

354.9710.47

355.5510.84

2859151.33

3006140.38

SG2

358.299.89

356.759.97

2240116.73

2403100.35

SG3

358.288.3

357.568.3

3070196.43

3210184.09

The analysis of the respiratory system performance revealed that its mean values were at a low level (Table 3). This is particularly true for the Study Group 2. We assume this is due to the fact that a half of the group was made up of foreign students, whose indicators were below average in all tests.

When communicating with the foreign students in a face-to-face setting about physical education classes in their countries, it was found that these classes were unstructured and unsystematic. This fact was confirmed by the results they demonstrated when reaching the qualifying standards of the physical culture and sport complex Ready for Labour and Defense: while strength exercises performance rates among boys were within the specification limits, coordination or suppling exercises were difficult to perform for them; girls found it difficult to perform the whole complex of exercises.

Table 3. Mean values of birth-death ratio and Skibinsky index

Group

Birth-death ratio, ml/kg

Skibinsky index, c.u.

before

after

before

after

RG

53.981.54

55.271.65

33.763.7

35.53.74

SG1

48.881.81

51.31.9

17.482.51

17.751.238

SG2

37.581.71

40.71.44

9.860.93

11.040.94

SG3

52.792.27

55.422.18

23.744.56

24.554.53

The Ruffier test mean values indicated an average and satisfactory levels of cardiac performance in the groups at the initial stage of the experiment. The final data had a positive dynamics in all groups, but the results changed significantly in the Study Groups only.

The average health indicators obtained when evaluating the level of adaptive capabilities of the body and circulatory system, and physical health level by Apanasenko indicated the positive changes in all groups (Table 4).

Table 4. Mean values of Ruffier index, level of adaptive capabilities of the body and physical health level by Apanasenko

Group

Ruffier test, c.u.

Adaptive potential, point

Physical health level by Apanasenko, point

before

after

before

after

before

after

RG

9.120.97

8.310.92

2.060.09

1.990.08

120.74

12.550.7

SG1

10.681.6

8.771.27

2.120.09

2.000.06

7.381.19

8.061.07

SG2

130.76

11.060.67

2.160.04

2.060.04

5.190.57

5.780.52

SG3

6.910.59

5.980.53

2.10.04

20.04

8.650.93

9.10.86

In the Study Groups 1 and 2, the level of adaptive capabilities of the body and circulatory system was initially in the tension zone, and after the experiment the mean value of adaptive potential fell out of this zone.

However, despite the obvious improvements, the Apanasenko’s health rating method still indicated the below average physical health level in the students of the second Study Group.

Conclusion. To summarize, having studied the morphofunctional characteristics of future teachers, we found their respiratory system performance rates to be low. This parameter was taken into account when designing the physical education program, with a special emphasis on the respiratory system developing physical practices, which resulted in the positive shifts, since the data obtained in the Study Groups changed significantly in contrast to the Reference Group. In general, applying the differential approach to the organization of physical education of future teachers based on their morphofunctional characteristics contributes to the improvement of future teachers’ health.

References

  1. Danilyuk A.Y., Kondakov A.M., Tishkov V.A. Kontseptsiya dukhovno-nravstvennogo razvitiya i vospitaniya lichnosti grazhdanina Rossii [The concept of spiritual and moral development and character education of Russian citizen]. Moscow: Prosveshchenie publ., 2009, 24 p.
  2. Ishmuhametov M.G. Differentsirovannoe fizicheskoe vospitanie shkolnikov v rayonakh ekologicheskogo riska. Dis. d.p.n. [Differentiated physical education of schoolchildren in environmental risk areas. PhD diss.]. Perm, 2006, 456 p.
  3. Kozhevnikova N.G. Rol faktorov riska obraza zhizni v formirovanii zabolevaemosti studentov [Lifestyle risk factors in formation of incidence rates among students]. Zemskiy vrach, 2011, no. 6, pp. 13-17.
  4. Lebedev A.V., Rubanovich V.B., Ayzman N.I., Ayzman R.I. Morfofunktsionalnye osobennosti studentov pervogo kursa pedagogicheskogo vuza [Morphofunctional features of first year students of pedagogical university]. Vestnik Novosibirskogo gosudarstvennogo pedagogicheskogo universiteta, 2014, no. 1 (17), pp. 128-141.
  5. Lubysheva L.I. Vserossiyskiy kompleks GTO kak faktor razvitiya fizkulturno-sportivnoy deyatelnosti vuza [All-Russia GTO complex as a factor in development of academic physical education and sports activities]. Mater. Vseros. nauch.-prakt. konf. s mezhdunar. uchastiem «Fizicheskaya kultura, sport, turizm: nauchno-metodicheskoe soprovozhdenie" [Proc. Rus. res.-pract. conf. with intern. participation "Physical culture, sports, tourism: scientific and methodological support], 2014, pp. 184-189.
  6. Trishkina T.D. Differentsirovanny podkhod k formirovaniyu aktivnogo otnosheniya uchashchikhsya starshikh klassov k fizicheskoy kulture [Differentiated approach to cultivation of senior pupils' active attitude to physical education]. Vestnik sportivnoy nauki, 2009, no. 2, pp. 65-68.

Corresponding author: fizkult@teoriya.ru

Abstract

The study considers practical experience of an individualised physical education model driven by the students’ anthropometric and functionality rates implemented at the premises of Elabuga Institute of Kazan Federal University. Objective of the study was to analyse the effects of the individualised physical education model driven by the students’ anthropometric measurements and functionality rates on the future teachers’ health. Subject to the study were 204 students majoring in Pedagogical Education. The study generated the following data: HR data; systolic blood pressure data; vital capacity (VC) data; Ruffier indices; Skibinsky indices; anthropometric measurements (body mass and length); vital indices; and Apanasenko’s health indices. The study data and analyses rated the subjects’ respiratory system performance as low. The academic physical education program was updated based on this finding, with a special emphasis on the respiratory system developing physical practices. The updated academic physical education program was proved beneficial as verified by the Study Groups test rates showing a significant progress versus the Reference Group ones. The study data demonstrated benefits of the individualised physical education model driven by the students’ anthropometric measurements and functionality rates as verified by the students’ improved health standards.