First-year female students' physical development versus physical fitness variation rating analysis

First-year female students' physical development versus physical fitness variation rating analysis

ˑ: 

PhD, Associate Professor O.A. Bogdanov
PhD, Associate Professor L.N. Shelkova
I.P. Vasyutina
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg

Keywords: university students, physical education, physical development, physical fitness, tests.

Introduction. The Regulations on Russian physical culture and sport complex “Ready for Labor and Defence” (GTO) set new challenges for educators and Physical Education teachers in secondary and higher educational institutions. In order to reach the standards of the new GTO complex students need to have a fairly high level of development of physical qualities. However, many experts note that physical fitness and health of young people enrolling in higher educational institutions has dropped significantly in recent years [2, 4]. Therefore, teachers working at physical education departments are forced to make adjustments to plans and curricula, reduce the physical load offered to students in class. At the same time in our opinion there are not enough specific data on the changes in the physical development and physical fitness levels of young people over the past few decades in relevant literature.

Objective of the study was to make a physical development versus physical fitness variation rating analysis of the first-year female students who entered different departments of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (HSPU, St. Petersburg) in the years of 1983, 2005, 2010 and 2015.

Methods and structure of the study. The study involved first-year female students of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (HSPU), qualified with the basic and preparatory health groups, who chose “physical conditioning” as their physical education classes specialization. The subjects were 17-19 years old in the test period (at the start of the first semester). Subject to the tests were 30 students in 1983; 45 students in 2005; 130 students in 2010 and 70 students in 2015.      

Physical development was rated by two parameters: body height and weight that were measured using a stadiometer and scales. Eight tests were chosen to rate physical fitness: 100 and 500 meter run; standing long jump; push-ups; right and left hands dynamometry; shuttle run 3x10 meters; forward bend while standing on a gymnastic bench, with hands reaching below the support level; dislocate backward with straight arms from the standing position – feet apart, gymnastic wand – horizontally downward (minimal distance between hands while doing the exercise was recorded).      

The testing was conducted under standard conditions, after a warm-up and in the form of a groups championship. The female students ran 100 and 500 m on the stadium track from a standing start. The rest of the tests were carried out in a gym. 

In addition, in 2010 and 2015 the subjects had the thickness of two skinfolds measured using a Lange skinfold caliper: on the inner side of a calf and the outer side of a shoulder [5], and body fat (in %) was assessed by means of a nomogram. 

This technique, known for its simplicity and sufficient accuracy, is widely used in the mandatory testing of students in educational institutions of the USA working by the President’s Challenge Program. The experimental data were processed by SPSS 15.0 statistical software.

Results and discussion. While analyzing the data submitted one can not help paying attention to the fact that the girls’ weight increased slightly in 2015 compared with the previous test, while the body fat decreased (Table 1). However, these changes were statistically insignificant (Р > 0.05). The height of the female students did not statistically change either, along with most of the results of the fitness rating tests, except for shuttle run where the test time increase is statistically significant (Р < 0.001). Since the time it took the girls to cover the distance of 100 m did not change significantly, worsening of the shuttle run result is probably due to a decrease in the level of movements coordination of the subjects, but this assumption requires further research.

Thus, the levels of physical development and physical fitness of first-year female students of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia did not change significantly during five years since the last study.

Table 1. Indicators of physical development and physical fitness of female students, Х±m

Indicators

1983

n = 30

2005

n = 45

2010

n = 130

2015

n = 70

1

Height, cm

163.59 ± 0.78

166.13 ± 0.71

165.41±0.44

164.97±0.81

2

Weight, kg

 

60.05 ±1.39

55.96 ± 0.74

56.72±0.69

57.97±1.27

3

Body fat, %

-

-

28.98±0.41

28.01±0.59

4

100 m run, s

16.91 ± 0.23

17.56 ±0.24

18.77±0.15

18.67±0.31

5

500 m run, s

121.24 ± 2.14

137.21 ± 2.43

142.24±1.62

 

139.09±1.94

6

Standing long jump, cm

172.66 ± 3.20

164.13 ±1.92

160.02±1.58

160.96±2.51

7

Push-ups, reps

 

9.21 ± 1.05

 

4.75 ± 0.64

 

4.50±0.45

 

4.87±0.43

8

Hand dynamometry, kg                     

 

right

left

 

 

37.62 ±1.46

32.31 ±1.19

 

 

29.13 ±0.64

26.87± 0.54

 

 

26.03±0.34

24.33±0.41

 

 

26.60±0.56

25.40±0.54

9

Shuttle run 3х10 m, s

8.91 ± 0.10

8.52± 0.05

 

8.59±0.07

9.19±0.08

10

Spine flexibility, cm

 

7.90 ± 0.69

 

11.64 ± 0.74

 

11.71±0.65

 

11.60±0.65

11

Shoulder joints flexibility, cm

 

72.07 ± 2.74

 

69.03 ± 2.69

 

72.55±1.2

 

73.66±2.59

The study we conducted in 2005 reported a considerable reduction in the physical fitness level of female students compared to 1983 [1]. In a similar test of 2010 further statistically significant (Р < 0.001) worsening of the results demonstrated by the subjects in 100 m run and hand dynamometry of both hands were recorded. Results of the other tests worsened too, with the exception of the forward bend while standing on a gymnastic bench, but the differences were statistically insignificant (Р > 0.05) [2].

Stabilization of the results in the majority of tests offered to the subjects in 2015 can be noted as a positive fact. On the other hand, this stabilization was at a fairly low level.

Comparing the physical fitness indicators of first-year female students in 2015 with the standards that must be complied with to obtain the new GTO complex badge [3], it should be stated that only the flexibility rating tests results are in compliance with the silver badge. The rest are substantially below the values required to receive the bronze badge.

Conclusion.  In order for the female students to get ready for complying with the standards of the new GTO complex a lot of efforts are required, both on the part of the students themselves and on the part of their teachers.

Teachers working with first-year students should first of all pay attention to developing their physical qualities such as strength, strength, speed and overall endurance as well as speed and strength qualities. 

Physical education teachers should also make adjustments to plans and curricula, since the majority of students admitted to the university are secondary school graduates.   

References

  1. Bogdanov O.A. Sravnitel'ny analiz fizicheskogo razvitiya i fizicheskoy podgotovlennosti studentok, postupivshikh v RGPU im. A.I. Gertsena v 1983 i 2005 godakh (Comparative analysis of physical development and physical fitness of students enrolled in Herzen SPUR in 1983 and 2005) / O.A. Bogdanov, V.S. Kunarev, V.Ya. Komisova // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. – 2006. - № 9. – P. 55-56.
  2. Bogdanov O.A. Sravnitel'ny analiz fizicheskogo razvitiya i fizicheskoy podgotovlennosti studentok, postupivshikh v RGPU im. A.I. Gertsena v 1983, 2005 i 2010 godakh (Comparative analysis of physical development and physical fitness of students enrolled in Herzen SPUR in 1983, 2005 and 2010) / O.A. Bogdanov, V.S. Kunarev, Yu.B. Kuzmina, T.P. Fedorova // Teoriya i praktika fizicheskoy kultury. - 2011. - № 8. – P. 24-25.
  3. Polozhenie o Vserossiyskom fizkul'turno-sportivnom komplekse «Gotov k trudu i oborone» (GTO) (Regulations on Russian physical culture and sport complex "Ready for Labor and Defence" (GTO). URL: http://www.gto-normy.ru.
  4. Ponomarev G.N. Strategiya razvitiya fizicheskoy kul'tury v usloviyakh realizatsii FGOS VPO (Strategy of development of physical culture within implementation of FSED HPE) / G.N. Ponomarev// Kul'tura fizicheskaya i zdorov'e. – 2012. - № 4. – P. 21-24.
  5. Skinfold equations for estimation of body fatness in children and youth / M.H. Slaughter [et al.] // Hum. Biol. - 1988. - Vol. 60, No. 5. - P. 709-723.

Corresponding author: boafitness@mail.ru

Abstract

Objective of the study was to make a physical development versus physical fitness variation rating analysis of the first-year female students who entered different departments of Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia (HSPU, St. Petersburg) in the years of 1983, 2005, 2010 and 2015. The physical development rates were dominated by the body height and weight measurements; in addition, the newcomers of 2010 and 2015 were tested for skinfold thickness and body fat. The physical fitness was rated by 8 tests. Subject to the tests were 30 students in 1983; 45 students in 2005; 130 students in 2010; and 70 students in 2015, with all the subjects being 17-19 years old in the test period (at the start of the first semester) and qualified with the basic and preparatory health groups. The study found most of the physical qualities in the female students being underdeveloped at the start of the first semester so that they were unfit for the relevant GTO tests; with the only exclusion for the flexibility rating tests.