Continuity of educational standards in physical education teacher training
Dr.Hab., Professor E.V. Piskunova
Dr.Hab., Professor G.N. Ponomarev
Herzen State Pedagogical University of Russia, St. Petersburg
Keywords: physical education, healthy lifestyle, teacher, higher education, teacher education, professional standards, professional activity.
Introduction. It is an important task of scientific practice to provide continuity of educational and professional standards in university training system. The present social and cultural situation reveals a number of problems, which if solved will make it possible, on the one hand, to rethink the potential and mission of physical culture, and on the other, to develop a curriculum for educational institutions management aimed geared to form socially important competences [2,3].
Objective of the research was to scientifically justify continuity of standards of higher pedagogical education, general education and teacher's work standards to be provided.
Results and discussion. There are several reasons for modernization of professional education at departments of physical education, the most important of which are probably the following. First, there are expressed public need for a healthy lifestyle and public recognition of the role of physical education in spiritual, mental and physical development. Second, the changing educational system needs a lot of modern specialists in physical education and should be focused on the improvement of life and health of each person .
It is important to emphasize modern goals of related subject area. In particular, students' results in physical education help them understand the role and importance of physical education in the formation of personal qualities, active involvement in a healthy lifestyle and in the improvement and preservation of individual health.
Students should master movements, techniques and physical exercises from basic sports and expand their motor experience through exercises focused on development of basic physical qualities and improvement of functional capacity of the main systems of the body .
Unfortunately, despite the declared goals, school physical education lessons often have a low health-improving effect due to training conditions, they are not emotionally intense and do not form the understanding of the high value of healthy lifestyle and the ability to maintain and improve health by means of physical education among the students. As an argument we shall refer to results of the study "Self-image of healthy teenager" .
Of course, there are some objective reasons for this situation: the lack of sport facilities and equipment, the insufficient training and methodological support, and perhaps the main reason is the unwillingness of teachers to carry out professional activities in accordance with the changing needs of children and adolescents and changing social need for new educational results. The introduction of the third lesson of physical education will hardly help fulfil the tasks that have been formulated in the physical education curricula for 1-11-graders.
The diversity of classes devoted to physical education and an active position of a teacher can change the current situation. It is important to give the students the opportunity to choose popular types of physical activity: shaping, aerobics, eurhythmics etc. that produce quick results related to physical fitness, body shaping and weight loss. The teacher should be ready to assist the students in learning the basic techniques of new sports: billiards, darts, curling, skateboarding, powerlifting, arm wrestling, paintball, squash, softball, bowling, golf, etc.
Obviously, it is difficult to fully solve the tasks of the discipline "Physical Education" within a lesson and that is why the federal state educational standard of general education creates required opportunities and encourages teachers to use extracurricular classes and additional education of children and adolescents that can greatly enrich the content of basic general education, provide the experience of sport leisure, help develop sport giftedness and self-actualization of students in sports and health-improving activities and contribute to personal and professional self-determination.
However, considering the requirements to professional activity of a modern teacher we should raise a rather important question related to the impact of higher education on the willingness of a teacher to carry out professional activity – whether it is appropriate to demand from a teacher things he has not been taught. Thus, the issue of harmonization of educational and professional standards is relevant and, regarding the improvement of teacher training in universities, we should consider such an important source of changes in teacher education as the standard of professional activity .
The new educational standards based on the idea of continuity of innovations, as the basis for constructing a new social and educational reality, are becoming a leading component for establishing the connection between the systems of general and higher education. It is known that the main mechanism for the implementation of continuous education is the development of professional competency of teachers.
Competency based model to ensure continuity of curricula of higher teacher education of various levels involves coordination of curricula on the basis of complete standardization that relies on the uniform goals of the whole system of continuous education and continuity of educational outcomes.
The structure of a professional standard differs from that of an educational standard, because the professional standard uses other categories such as the generalized professional function which is considered a pedagogical activity on the design and implementation of the teaching process in institutions of general education. There are new aspects of teaching, significant in the context of changes in the socio-cultural situation, for example, the need to use special approaches to training in order to engage all students in the educational process and competences related to information technologies. One of the innovations in teaching activities is professional actions of the teacher needed in the classroom: to effectively manage educational groups with the aim of engaging students in the training process; to establish clear rules of behaviour in the class in accordance with the school statute and the rules of behaviour in educational organizations; to be able to communicate with children, recognize their dignity, understand and accept them; to be able to determine the value aspect of educational knowledge and information and ensure that the students understand and experience it; to be able to maintain constructive educational efforts of parents and involve them in the training process of their children; and to maintain culture, atmosphere and traditions of the school, while making one's positive contribution. The following professional actions are also considered innovative for education: the ability to identify various problems of children associated with the peculiarities of their development and help them using pedagogical techniques; the ability to understand documentation of various specialists (psychologists, speech pathologists, speech therapists, etc.); the ability to collaborate with other professionals in creating a program of individual development of a child; the knowledge of special techniques that allow to carry out correctional and developmental work; the ability to monitor the dynamics of development of a child; the ability to form and develop universal educational actions, patterns and values of social behaviour, including behaviour in social networks, the skills of multicultural communication, etc .
Thus, the elaboration of educational standards of higher professional teacher education should be carried out along with the identification of social needs – the construction of an "image" of a future specialist.
Modernization of teacher training in the field of physical education is not confined to creation of an educational standard. It is only the first step that determines the overall strategy of training of specialists of a new type. But the very process of training is determined by the curriculum which describes the content and organization of students' activities related to mastering of the curriculum and the requirements for final assessment.
The important feature of main curricula in the sphere of physical education is that the specialist is formed within each cycle of disciplines.
Conclusions. Curricula for specialists in physical education should be designed and implemented with regard to humanitarization - the common strategy related to higher and general education and standards of professional activity of a teacher.
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Abstract. The article studies the problem of providing continuity of standards of higher pedagogical education, general education and standards of professional activity of a teacher based on the preparation of physical education teachers training. Author's vision of the conditions of continuity of training standards in curricula of higher education institutions is presented. The article is a part of the research work conducted within the state assignment "The Study of Continuity of Federal State Educational Standards of Higher Education, Federal State Educational Standards of General Education and Professional Standards in the Field of Education".
Currently, when it comes to new scientific and educational paradigms, priority researches focus on physical education and pedagogical conditions related to the formation of professional competency of a teacher. Taking into account the general humanistic approach to the problem of formation of physical culture of students, it is necessary to consider the potential of physical culture for personality. Today physical culture is not only an independent social phenomenon, but also a stable personal quality. Thus, educational curricula at all levels of education should include methodological basis that reflects the values of physical culture and the interrelation of spiritual, mental and physical health.