Dr.Hab., Professor I.N.Timoshina1
PhD, Associate Professor E.V. Makarova2
1Ulyanovsk State Pedagogical University n.a. I.N. Ulyanov, Ulyanovsk
2Ulyanovsk State Agricultural Academy n.a. P.A. Stolypin, Ulyanovsk
Keywords: streetball players, university students, education technology
Background. Streetball means street basketball that emerged in the middle of the 20th century as an offspring of the classical basketball. This sport discipline is particularly interesting, accessible and promising for young people for the reason that a streetball game is relatively short-timed and may be played on a few sites by teams with a few players, and the competitions may be short (often taking one day only), albeit make it possible for many teams and players to compete at a time .
Moreover, streetball is a unique sport discipline highly applicable in the university physical training process involving students of different specialties and in the military cadets’ training process as it requires no complicated equipment/ accessories and at the same time is highly beneficial as it helps improve the young people’s physical qualities and functional capacities, decrease the nervous tension and encourage positive emotions in the physical education process .
As things now stand, the sport is obviously in need of theoretical studies to offer efficient tools and methods of mass streetball training within a long-term sport planning system that could be integrated to produce a mass streetball training and education technology.
Objective of the study was to provide theoretical grounds for the mass streetball training and education technology.
Study results and discussion. It is a matter of common knowledge in sport theory and research that any process technology including the educational one is designed to represent the subject system or notion in a form that may somewhat differ from its commonly accepted existential form and offer a model reflecting the essence of the subject system. Therefore an education technology may be interpreted as a model educational system implementable in real practice based on certain theoretical, practical, programmatic, regulatory and institutional fundamentals .
The proposed technology was designed based on an analysis of the relevant research reports and summarized experience of the modern basketball and streetball training methods including our own training, competitive and educational experience. The education technology is designed on the clearly formulated goal and missions and the valid legal and regulatory provisions that determine the content and structure of the training process; it evolves within a certain structure including the methodological component, process management component and the resultant component (see Diagram 1).
Diagram 1. Mass streetball training and education process technology
The technology is meant to improve efficiency of the mass streetball training and education process.
The missions of the technology are the following:
- Improve and maintain health and increase the functional capacities of the trainees;
- Develop the key motor and movement coordination qualities in the streetball players including general endurance, speed-and-strength endurance, speed, jumping skills, agility, accuracy and motor response precision rates;
- Help master technical and tactical techniques and actions in offence and defense, including jumpers, dodges, no-look passes, fast dribbling, blocking, ball stealing, rebound control etc.; and
- Shape up an individual play style taking full benefit of the individual qualities, skills and gifts of the player for success in competitions.
A core idea of any training technology is to integrate and implement the general educational/ didactical concepts and key specific aspects of an athletic training process including free choice, integration of the basic and special training tools; training process continuity; good load management in training phases; cyclic design of the process; harmony of the process structure and content; and the process versatility.
The frame concept of streetball training process we developed provides for the following:
- Periodic structure of the annual training macro-cycle, i.e. the phased design of the long-term training process to integrate the duly interrelated preparatory, competitive and transitional periods;
- Focus on an integrated athletic training method that combines a variety of tools in each training session to develop, on an integrated basis, the key motor and movement coordination qualities in the streetball players including general endurance, speed-and-strength endurance, speed, jumping skills, agility, accuracy and motor response precision – and thereby improve the tactical and tactical knowledge and skills both in offence and defense in any game situation; and
- Systemic diagnostics of the starting and current physical fitness and technical skill levels through a variety of tests to rate the key physical qualities of the athletes and apply the progress rating data for the training process individualization to help shape up the individual play styles based on the specific personal qualities, skills and gifts of the streetball players for their success in competitions.
The above methodological provisions give grounds for efficient implementation of the experimental program based on the relevant educational conditions we identified . This program (for the sport specialization stage) was designed based on the relevant practical recommendations for the sport training process design in the RF to cover the five-year period of university studies.
An objective of our program was to provide a long-term university streetball training system to train universally fit players. Key missions of the proposed program were to improve health of the trainees; step up the versatile physical and functional fitness levels; give them advanced technical and technical knowledge and skills; and let the trainees gain a competitive experience. The theoretical domain of the program was designed to study the history of traditional and street basketball games and the modern competitive formats; and learn the rules of competitions and basics of the streetball training methods. The practical domain of the program makes provisions for the phased growth of the physical training process loads and intensities; technical and tactical skills improvement; and regular participation of athletes in competitions . The program gives samples of the streetball training process design in different phases of an annual training cycle and describes in detail a variety of the training micro-cycle methods classified as motivating, preparatory, basic, ordinary, balancing, model, high-intensity, competitive and rehabilitative ones.
The proposed technology application in the university (both sexes) streetball training systems was proved beneficial for attaining the expected results (i.e. the resultant component of the technology), as it was found to ensure stable positive motivation for exercises; increase physical fitness and technical skill levels; improve the functional capacities of the trainees and, hence, help them attain the expected results in the sport.
Conclusion. The mass streetball training and education process technology we propose is designed based on the constructive long-term planning and versatility concept to develop players’ physical qualities on a multisided basis in harmony with the growing technical and tactical knowledge and skills for the players being efficient in any game situation and under any conditions (including variable weather conditions, playground surface conditions, rules of competitions, team numbers, schedules of competitions etc.) to secure the team players being interchangeable on the playground irrespective of their core game roles.
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Analysis of the available theoretical and practical literature and the relevant valid legal and regulatory framework shows that modern mass streetball is still in need of basic regulatory documents and practical tutorials/ guides to support university sports, and the only document available for today is the rules of streetball competitions. The article presents a mass streetball training process technology covering many issues with the only exception for the rules of mass competitions. The new technology was designed based on summaries of the available reference literature and analysis of the modern athletic training methods applied in basketball and streetball. The technology gives an overview of the designs and content of a frame training and education system applicable to university students and tailored to their physical fitness levels and sport specializations. It gives the means to design the key process requirements and components in their succession and proportions – so as to, knowing the input data characteristic of the individual motivations and physical condition of a student, design an individualized training system for a phased and efficient progress of the player – provided the relevant training conditions within the long-term sport planning system are in place. One of the key prerequisites for the proposed technology being efficient is that it should apply the tools and methods of the experimental long-term mass university streetball training program on the whole and its sport specialization phase in particular.