Dr.Hab., Professor E.F. Orekhov
Dr.Med., Professor E.V. Bykov
Ural State University of Physical Culture, Chelyabinsk
Keywords: health, specialist training, vocational training, students, physical education.
Introduction. Elite sport is being constantly enriched by the influx of student-athletes who are members of the Russian national teams and reserve athletes almost in all kinds of sport. However, despite the emphasis on health and lifestyle of youth, there is a downward trend in the number of healthy people; health deterioration of pupils and then students starting from the first year of study to graduation [1, 2, 5, 8, 9]. According to the results of medical examination for the last five years the number of newly diagnosed sick first-year students has increased by 90% and the number of detected diseases has grown by 42% . It is quite hard for student-athletes to recovering after physical loads due to university studies. Heart and respiratory diseases prevail (124,22‰ and 139,59‰ respectively). The number of endocrine diseases is twice higher as compared with average population indices.
It was found, that only 18,5% of elite athletes strive to comply with the current level of scientific pedagogical standards in the matters of organization and conducting training sessions . Therefore, more than 80% of specialists make pedagogical decisions based only on their own experience, but not adhering to the logic of teaching realities, i.e. they reproduce the experience of the previous generations. Hence, the primary objective is to train specialists in the physical education (PE) sector, who would meet several important challenges: implement both sports-oriented and recreational physical education curricula (teaching activities), select training and recovery means when planning training loads (coaching activities) . The need to resolve the conflict between the personal and social needs for the PE potential implementation and the system of traditional higher vocational education (HVE) determine the relevance of the problem.
Research objective was to identify the main contradictions between the realities of social demand for a highly competent specialist – sport university graduate and his training system, as well as determine solutions to these contradictions.
Results and discussion. Physical education acts as an integrative tool for harmonious development of man, contributes to his professional and social adaptation. The demand for services in the sphere of PE depends on the competency level of personal qualities of specialists. The role of managerial, communicative and motor (multidisciplinary) components of the professiogram of specialists becomes increasingly important.
Analysis of staffing problems in the PE sector shows a mismatch between social demands, and consequently, between the nature of professional activity of university graduates and the manner and orientation of vocational training. The structure of the HVE process should be developed so that the skill building methods traditional for domestic universities could be maintained and students (would-be specialists) could be able to acquire required competences on their own; this should be referred to the personal orientation of education.
State expenditures on physical education and sports (PES) activities are an economically efficient investment in human development and improvement of the quality of life of Russian citizens. PE university graduates play a major role in the formation of the positive attitude to the healthy lifestyle which consists in the optimum motor regime; however, specialists do not fully conform to the social challenges. Consequently, it is necessary to modernize the HVE system in the PES sector in order to prepare specialists able to adjust to the conditions of market relations.
The basic task of a university process is to teach students how to be conversant in the information space. Undoubtedly, the structure of the HVE process should be developed so that the skill building methods traditional for domestic universities could be maintained and students (would-be specialists) could be able to acquire required knowledge on their own. On the other hand, the financial aspect is very important: more than 50% of the PE university graduates do not work in their speciality and the same number of extramural students work out of the PE scope because they are not satisfied with the salary. In this regard, the relevant task of the HVE system in the modern environment is to create the conditions for getting second education in the course of university studies or to provide an opportunity for timely professional reorientation, as indicated by 98,1% of specialists, 69,7% of first-year students and 76,1% of final-year students. In particular, new and popular specializations include “Sport Management” and “Sport Facilities and Industry”. Specialist training in the field of sport management is determined by the level of development of domestic professional and club sport. Besides, the analysis of the labor market revealed the need for specialists with the solid knowledge of the specifics of sport facilities operation. This is especially important in the case of Russia hosting major international competitions in the period from 2013 to 2018 and in the future. Further improvement of the HVE system should be associated with a more qualitative selection of applicants, educational technologies and enhancement of international contacts and communicative opportunities targeted at easy exchange of information and human resources .
Conclusion. The basic concepts of training in the PE sector are self-education process which is based on the modern communicative technologies, and implementation of a point rating evaluation system of the quality of training. We need an optimal combination of basic training at the initial level of education along with the specialized training at the second level. The educational process should be implemented in terms of theory and methodology of the chosen sport and special subjects based on the principles of establishing interdisciplinary relations and implementation of the competency building approach in education; a student should have a chance to choose his educational path and participate in the learning and teaching activities through sports-related pedagogical disciplines and practices. This unit of training is aimed at integration, implementation and consolidation of the gained knowledge on the other subjects .
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Despite the priority of health and lifestyle of youth, a downward trend is observed in some healthy people. University studies make it quite difficult for student-athletes to recover after physical loads. Only 18,5% of elite athletes strive to comply with the current level of scientific pedagogical standards in the matters of organization and conducting training sessions; 80% of graduates of sport universities make pedagogical decisions based on their own experience only, without adhering to the logic of teaching realities, reproducing the experience of the previous generations. Hence, there is an increased demand for the specialists in the field of physical education, who would implement both sports-oriented and recreational physical education curricula (teaching activities) and select training and recovery means when planning training loads (coaching activities). This requires vocational physical education to be updated in accordance with the current socioeconomic conditions. We need an optimal combination of basic training at the initial level of education along with the specialized training at the second level. The educational process should be implemented in terms of theory and methodology of the chosen sport and special subjects based on the principles of establishing interdisciplinary relations and implementation of the competency building approach in education; a student should have a chance to choose his educational path and participate in the learning and teaching activities through sports-related pedagogical disciplines and practices.