Slide aerobics in university physical education

Фотографии: 

Master's degree student Z.S. Zemlyakova
Dr.Hab., Professor V.G. Shil'ko
National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk

Keywords: slide aerobics, physical fitness, functional state, physical working capacity.

Introduction. In view of the increasing intensity of the training process in higher school, the problem of achieving the optimal levels of physical fitness and health by bachelors and masters is becoming particularly important. In order to solve this problem, the pedagogical technologies geared to improve students’ lagging physical qualities and settle their sport and physical training interests and needs have been implemented in the educational process on the discipline "Physical Education" in National Research Tomsk State University (NRTSU). Aerobics of different types holds a specific place in the structure of interests of this category. Its positive impact on physical development and functional state has been proved by many researchers [1-6 et al.].

As for now, among the numerous types of fitness aerobics exercises one can feel a shortage of methodical materials related to slide aerobics and its application at practical university lessons of physical education, as it is a relatively new area of ​​physical activity (originated at the end of the XX century), which, due to its accessibility, simplicity and entertaining value has already become very popular among students.

Slide aerobics has a number of advantages. It differs fundamentally from other types of fitness aerobics by the active use of lateral (i.e. side) motion. Due to the specificity of this kind of motion, slide training is considered, firstly, as one of the most intensive aerobic trainings, and secondly, as strength training, since it requires a considerable muscular tension of the adductor and abductor muscles of thigh, even during a simple basic movement. In addition, in the course of exercising, the slide provides reduced shockless loading on the lower legs and feet (this type of fitness aerobics does not include jumping and hopping exercises).

Therefore, the listed characteristics of slide aerobics open great possibilities for the development of students’ physical fitness and promotion of their health, and it is the lack of scientific data on the effects of this kind of motor activity on the level of physical fitness and functional state of students that determined the choice of this area of research.

Objective of the research was to study the influence of slide aerobics classes on the indices of functional state, physical fitness and physical working capacity of students.

Methods and structure of the research. For the purpose of the research we conducted an educational experiment at the premises of the department of physical culture and sport of National Research Tomsk State University. The experiment involved first-year students from 12 faculties (aged 17-19 years) belonging either to basic or preparatory health group. 2 groups were formed - reference (RG) and study (SG). The experiment lasted from October, 2014 through May, 2015. The RG subjects were engaged in classical fitness aerobics, and those of the SG – in slide aerobics. The classes were held twice a week at the aerobics department.

The levels of development of the studied physical qualities were assessed using the following test exercises: to evaluate speed-strength qualities – standing long; flexibility – bending forward standing on a bench (the distance from the fingertips to the support was measured); strength qualities – push-ups.

The ability to coordinate movements was evaluated using a special test, which consisted in alternating body movements in the following sequence: squat position – front lying position – front lying position with legs apart – front lying position – squat position – normal stand position.

If a student went through this combination, she scored 1 point. The final result was determined by the number of points scored for 15 seconds.

Physical working capacity of female students was evaluated using the PWC170 test (by V.L. Karpman formula) using a bicycle ergometer. The dynamic force of the leg muscles was assessed with the help of Abalakov’s test. Coordination abilities were determined by means of Romberg’s test (Stance #3, “Arabesque”). In addition, we monitored the dynamics of anthropometric measurements, and took into consideration the body fat percentage calculated using a special software application.

Physical fitness and anthropometric indicators of the RG and SG subjects were evaluated before (October, 2014) and after the experiment (May, 2015) according to an individual schedule with due regard to the girls’ menstrual cycle.

Results and discussion. The physical fitness testing results of female students before and after the experiment are presented in Table 1. As seen from analysis of the obtained data. there were positive shifts in the indicators of physical fitness and anthropometric measurements in both of the groups. However, the level of achievements in the studied indicators differed significantly in those from the RG and SG. Thus, in the SG significant changes (p≤0.05) were observed in almost all control exercises, except for the flexibility test, which was marked by an entirely positive trend.

In the RG we detected significant changes (p≤0.05) in such indicators as: development of strength and speed-strength qualities, as well as coordination ability. Despite the positive shifts in the physical development of RG students, there were no significant changes, even at the level of trend, in such indicators as “body fat percentage”, “dynamic force” (Abalakov’s test), “physical working capacity”, “static equilibrium” (Romberg’s test).

Therefore, the findings suggest slide aerobics has a more effective impact on physical development and functional state of female students compared to classical fitness aerobics. We believe, this is primarily due to the high intensity of aerobic load: in terms of the same duration and frequency of training sessions (twice a week) the increase in general endurance is more pronounced among the SG subjects (physical working capacity in the test PWC170 – from 1.8±0.06 W/kg to 2.2±0.05 W/kg). Higher intensity of physical load in the SG contributed to a positive change in the anthropometric measurements and a decrease in such an indicator as body fat percentage – from 26.9±4.9% to 23.1±0.5%, which corresponds to the physiological norm for women of this age group.

After the experiment, significant changes were observed in static coordination in the Romberg’s test in the SG. This can be due to equilibrium exercises, half turns (180°) and rotations (360°) included in the slide aerobics lesson plan; the time of maintenance of static balance in Stance #3 (standing on one leg) in the SG increased by more than 2 times as compared to the SG, where no changes were detected. The shift in the dynamic force of the leg muscles in the SG equaled 7.7±16.5 cm before and after the experiment. This can be attributed to the fact that the basic motor action in slide aerobics - sliding from one ramp to the other (180 cm) with legs always touching the surface - is carried out by means of the external and front thigh muscle efforts. We observed significant improvement of the developmental indicators of the arm muscle strength and speed-strength qualities in both of the groups (see Table 1).

Slide aerobics and classical fitness aerobics exercises slightly differ in their coordination complexity, so we detected a statistically significant enhancement of coordination skills in both of the groups.

Table 1. Test results demonstrated by the reference and study group subjects

Indicators

Indicator values before the experiment

Indicator values at the end of the experiment

RG

SG

RG

SG

Body fat percentage, %

26±1.7

26.9±4.9

25.5±1.6

23.1±0.5*

Abalakov’s test, cm

26.4±18.7

25.9±16.5

28.1±17.9

33.6±16.5*

Coordination of movements, number of reps

5.3±0.3

5.3±0.2

6.5±0.3*

6.6±0.1*

Standing long jump, cm

168.1±30

170±26

178.4±26.8*

186±26.7*

Bending forward standing on a bench, cm

18.8±12.8

17.4±16.8

22.9±17

22.4±16.5

Push-ups, number of reps

10.4±10

10.3±7

18±11.4*

20.1±12*

Romberg’s test, sec

9.7±6

10.5±5

11.2±5

24.3±8*

PWC170, W/kg

1.7±0.01

1.8±0.06

1.7±0.01

2.2±0.05*

* – p≤0.05.

Conclusion. It has been experimentally proved that slide aerobics classes are an effective way to implement the main goals of university physical education related to the development of physical qualities, improvement of indices of physical working capacity and normalization of statural-weight values of female students. The findings provide a basis for its implementation in the educational process on the university subject of “Physical Education”.

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