Regional blood flow in upper limbs of senior boxers under muscle tension of different types

Фотографии: 

S.N. Neupokoev1
Associate Professor, PhD J.P. Bredikhina2
Student N.A. Ovchinnikova2
Dr.Med., Professor L.V. Kapilevich1, 2
1National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk
2National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk

Keywords: athletic movement, rheography, adaptation, cardiovascular system, boxing.

Explosive ballistic type of muscle tension is characteristic of effective punches in athletes of the game like bout manner. In this case the movement begins by means of intensive work of the lower limbs in the form of powerful pushing away, and the speed reaches its maximum during the initial phase [2, 3]. The movement of the knuckle part of the hand (fist) then continues under its own momentum, where the pulling power of the muscles does not accelerate the impact part, but just maintains its speed at the level set by the legs and torso muscles involved in the movement in strict sequence [4, 5]. It is possible to perform this type of movement using boxing gloves (10 oz) as part of the outfit and as prevention of hand injuries.  

At the same time, a lot of studies show that coordination characteristics of punches suffer while improving the punches of special preparatory exercises using heavy boxing bags and standard bag gloves. The movement is carried out with a significant involvement of the antagonist muscles of shoulder extensors [6, 7], the movement of the fist to the target is performed by means of non-ballistic type of muscle tension, which affects the process of sport training. However, besides biomechanical factors, the type of the punches performance can be influenced by the characteristics of vegetative-vascular support of motor activity [1].

Objective of the research was to study the characteristics of the regional blood flow of boxers of high categories when performing punches using various hand protection means.

Research methods and structure. Subject to the study were 27 men aged 17-23, engaged in boxing. Two study groups (SG) were identified according to their qualification: 7 Candidates for Master of Sport (CMS) and 11 athletes of the first category. There were two reference groups (RG): 11 Candidates for Master of Sport and 10 athletes of the first category. The athletes performed a single direct punch into the head to a boxing bag with a maximum power during a round (3 minutes) with the rest interval of 5 seconds between the punches. Boxing gloves (10 oz) were used in the study group and bag gloves – in the reference group as means of hand protection from injury.   

Indicators of the regional blood flow in the shoulder muscles after the accented direct punch with the right hand were recorded using Reo-Spectrum rheographic complex. Heart rate and blood pressure before and after the test load were measured using Polar FT1 heart rate monitor and Microlife BP AG1-40 – a mechanical tonometer. The values of blood circulation minute volume (MV) and Ruffier-Dickson test (RDT), pulse pressure (PP) and stroke volume (SV) were calculated. The results were tested for normality of distribution using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. Nonparametric Mann-Whitney U-test was used to assess the significance of the sample differences.    

Results and discussion. There was a significant decrease in diastolic (DI) and bisferious indices in boxers of the first category in the study group after they performed a series of punches during a round (р<0.05). There was also a significant decrease in the BI and DI in the study group in case of the CMS boxers in comparison with the CMS boxers from the reference group   (р<0.05, Table 1). The CMS boxers of the reference group had the lowest amplitude-frequency component (AFC) as well as the rheographic index (р<0.05, Table 1). In the reference group the CMS boxers demonstrated lower Vmax value during the test load performance (р<0.05, Table 1). In the study group the CMS boxers demonstrated lower values of RI, AFC and Vmax than those of the first category (р<0.05, Table 1). Thus, in case of systematic use of boxing gloves instead of bag ones as means of hand injury prevention, the motor load of boxers of the first category is accompanied by an increased outflow of blood compared with the reference group, and the motor load of CMS boxers is accompanied by a simultaneous reduction of inflow and an increased outflow of blood.  

No significant differences in any parameters were recorded between the study and reference groups while at rest (Table 2, р<0.05). After the test load the pulse pressure (PP) of the athletes of the first category from the study group exceeded that of the athletes of the first category from the reference group by 48.7%, and in case of the CMS athletes it was lower than that of the reference group by 43.3% (р<0.05, Table 2). Heart rate indicators (HR), on the contrary, decreased by 20% in case of the boxers of the first category and by 22% in case of the CMS boxers of the study group (р<0.05, Table 2). Systolic volume values (SVh) of the athletes of the first category from the study group exceeded the level of the reference group by 25.3% upon completion of the test (р<0.05, Table 2). Ruffier-Dickson test (RDT) values decreased by 33.4% after the physical load compared with those of the boxers of the first category from the reference group and by 44.3% compared with the CMS boxers (р<0.05, Table 2).

When comparing the indicators within the groups before and after the physical load it was noted that there was a significant increase of the values of PP, HR and MV in the reference group of the first category and CMS boxers (р<0.05, Table 2). There was also an increase of these values and also the value of the systolic blood pressure (SBP) in the study group of the CMS boxers and boxers of the first category (р<0.05, Table 2). The results indicate an optimal response of the cardiovascular system of the boxers to the motor load in the study group which is manifested in PP and is not due to HR as is the case in the reference group. 

Conclusion. The use of sport equipment that limits the traumatic impact on the hands enables athletes to perform movements in line with the optimal motor-coordination parameters. Performance of punches of the explosive ballistic muscle tension type contributes to optimal response of the circulatory system of an athlete to “explosive” physical load. At the same time engaging in an impact movement of arm muscles in the reference group, which is characteristic of the non-ballistic type of punches, is accompanied by the hypotonic type of response of the cardiovascular system and, as a consequence, by a reduced vegetative support of muscular activity.

Table 1. Indicators of the right shoulder blood flow of boxers after performance of punches Хm± m

Indicators

Boxers of the 1st category

CMS boxers

Study group

Reference group

Study group

Reference group

RI

3.57±0.02

2.76±0.04

2.92±0.01

1.71±0.03*£

AFC

3.05±0.05

2.82±0.05

2.81±0.03

1.62±0.01*£

Vmax

3.28±0.09

3.24±0.08

2.69±0.01#

2.62±0.01£

Vm

1.8±0.03

1.63±0.02

1.51±0.09

1.31±0.01

BI

38.4±1.02

28.03±1.31*

37.8±1.05

25.3±1.2*

DI

44.15±1.25

28.1±1.07*

41.7±1.04

24.2±1.03*

VOF

23.19±1.41

20.1±1.05

22.85±1.13

20.02±1.01

*– significance of differences with the reference group, Р>0.05;

# – significance of differences with the reference group of boxers of the 1st category, Р>0.05;

£ – significance of differences with the study group of boxers of the 1st category, Р>0.05.

Table 2. Indicators of the cardiac function of boxers when performing punches Хm± m

                                                          Boxers of the 1st category                            

Indicators

Study group

Reference group

At rest

After exercise

At rest

After exercise

PP (mmHg)

39.6±2.1

49.1±2.6#

42±3.1

73±4.2*#

SBP (mmHg)

123.7±5.2

144.3±5.1

120.3±7.3

156.4±6.1#

DBP (mmHg)

79.9±3.7

95.1±5.7

78.3±4.1

79.9±4.3

HR (bpm)

60.1±2.6

148.4±7.1#

60.4±3.2

118.7±5.4*#

SVh (ml)

79±4.2

75.6±3.4

80.9±3.9

94.7±3.5*

MV (l/min)

4.7±0.5

11.2±2.9#

4.9±0.7

11.2±2.5#

RDT (c.u.)

-

13.96±1.8

-

9.3±1.05*

CMS boxers

Indicators

Study group

Reference group

At rest

After exercise

At rest

After exercise

PP (mmHg)

41.8±3.2

56.7±3.4#

42±2.5

69.8±4.1*#

SBP (mmHg)

121±5.5

139.5±6.1

118±5.3

148.3±6.9#

DBP (mmHg)

79.3±4.8

83.3±6.2

76±3.7

78.5±5.3

HR (bpm)

60.5±3.1

137.8±7.6#

59.5±2.6

109.3±5.1*#

SVh (ml)

80.3±2.9

86.1±3.8

82.6±3.9

96.1±4.1

MV (l/min)

4.9±0.7

11.9±2.2#

4.9±0.6

10.5±1.6#

RDT (c.u.)

-

12.7±2.1

-

7.2±1.3*

* – significance of differences with the reference group after the exercise, Р>0.05;

# – significance of differences of the indicators before and after the exercise within the groups, Р>0.05.

Corresponding author: kapil@yandex.ru;

 

Abstract

It is proven that performance of punches of the explosive ballistic muscle tension type becomes possible when using effective hand protection (boxing gloves) and contributes to optimal response of the circulatory system of an athlete to “explosive” physical load. At the same time engaging in an impact movement of arm muscles using bag gloves, which is characteristic of the non-ballistic type of punches, is accompanied by the hypotonic type of response of the cardiovascular system and, as a consequence, by a reduced vegetative support of muscular activity.

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