Associate Professor, PhD A.I. Babakov1
PhD L.V. Loginov1
Merited Coach of Russia, Professor N.M. Magomedov1
1Institute of Physical Culture and Sport of Vladimir State University n.a. A.G. and N.G. Stoletov, Vladimir
2Istitute of Physical Culture, Sport and Healthy Lifestyle of Irkutsk State Agrarian University n.a. A.A. Ezhevsky, Irkutsk
Keywords: inter-ethnic relations, young wrestlers, boys and girls, freestyle, Greco-Roman wrestling, belt wrestling, national and international martial arts of peoples of North, emotions during training, during competitive matches and their completion.
Introduction. In sport activities, including combat sports, when studying the psychological and pedagogical aspects of formation of inter-ethnic relations and analyzing emotions of young wrestlers, both boys and girls, on the occasion of their inevitable victory or defeat, increasingly greater attention is being paid to the issue of self-regulation of emotional states after victories or defeats (5, 6, 7). The emphasis is on the formation of tolerant, human relationships between wrestlers of different ethnic groups and gender, regardless of the outcome of a competitive match (1, 2, 4). Conflicts and contradictions on national matter should be treated by competitors, coaches, spectators and fans as individual costs and shortcomings of educational work with wrestlers of different age (8).
Research objective was to analyze inter-ethnic relations and emotional states of wrestlers during different-scale competitions in national and international martial arts.
Methods and structure of research. The paper presents the materials of the research conducted in 2015 in various regions of Russia during different-scale national and international martial arts championships. Boys and girls engaged in freestyle wrestling were the subjects of our study during the Championship of the Southern Federal District (September, Primorsko-Akhtarsk, Krasnodar Krai), boys and girls engaged in belt wrestling and national wrestling kurash were examined in Vladimir and Irkutsk throughout the year during championships of various levels.
Individual results of the questionnaire survey, expert evaluation and pedagogical observation made it possible to identify and analyze individual emotions and psychological states of young wrestlers when organizing and holding competitive matches, their emotions after victories and defeats. Wrestlers’ emotions were determined by facial expressions, behavior and relationships with their teammates and competitors, reaction to the comments made by their coaches and seconds, nervousness during holds and maneuvers, reaction to spectators and fans’ shouts.
The main contingent subject to the study consisted of wrestlers, adolescent and junior boys and girls, representatives of 62 ethnic groups from different regions of Russia, CIS states and foreign countries, who studied in the secondary and higher educational institutions of Russia: Institute of Physical Culture and Sport of Vladimir State University, Kuban State University of Physical Culture, Sport and Tourism, Institute of Physical Culture, Sport and Healthy Lifestyle of Irkutsk State Agrarian University named after A.A. Ezhevsky and other educational institutions of multinational Russia, whose students participated in championships.
Subject to studies conducted during the belt wrestling and national martial arts championships were 162 wrestlers, including 102 boys and 60 girls, and 141 freestyle wrestlers, including 98 boys and 43 girls. The research results are represented in a percentage ratio to the number of subjects (a total of 303 people).
Results and discussion. The results of examination of young freestyle wrestlers, boys and girls, revealed that older and more experienced and skillful wrestlers had less significant differences in emotional states during bouts and whilst training for these bouts with the representatives of the same and different ethnic groups. This can be seen from the almost consolidated figures obtained during the pedagogical observation, athletes’ self-evaluation and expert evaluation. The determined differences proved that, irrespective of the ethnicity of their opponents, whilst waiting for and participating in a competitive match girls experience much more negative emotions than boys of the same age.
The pedagogical and psychological factors on the part of coaches that help young wrestlers overcome negative emotions during pre-season training, competitive matches and upon completion in case of defeats are the following: a) objective information about the upcoming bout with an unknown opponent, especially with a representative of a different ethnic group, is mandatory; b) the gap in the knowledge of opponent’s technique and tactics, his/her titles and ranks should be filled; c) during the away championships it is necessary to provide psychological support of young wrestlers to help them adapt to new competitive conditions; d) young wrestlers are to master the techniques of self-regulation of their emotional states at victories and defeats.
The educational methods and methodological techniques employed by coaches towards young wrestlers to teach them think positively before a match, during competitive matches and upon completion are the following: a) methods of persuasion of the ethnicity of the future opponent, wrestling school, where he/she trains; b) patriotism cultivation techniques applicable to a wrestler as a citizen of a unified multi-ethnic state by the example of nonpareil; c) methods of formation of individual qualities in a wrestler as a member of international community of wrestlers from all over the world based on the international knowledge base; d) integrated and interconnected use of methods of cultivation and self-cultivation of wrestler’s moral, emotional and volitional personality characteristics; e) assistance to each individual young wrestler in mastering the methods and methodological techniques of self-regulation of emotional states in case of victories and defeats.
Conclusion. In order to form humane, tolerant inter-ethnic relations coaches and athletes need under competitive conditions they should be aware of the social essence of sports as a means of international communication, not only in sport activities, but also in everyday life.
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