Physical development and physical fitness of Irkutsk female preschoolers, pupils and students

Фотографии: 

Applicant E.A. Koypysheva
Applicant L.D. Rybina
Dr.Med., Professor V.Yu. Lebedinskiy
National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk

Keywords: physical development, physical fitness, preschool girl, schoolgirl, female students of Eastern Siberia.

Introduction. An important factor in the evaluation of public health in different regions of Russia is the maintenance of optimal physical activity within the life-span of each individual [1, 7]. Thus, many authors point out a close relationship between the characteristics of physical development and physical fitness in different population groups, with their regional and national peculiarities [3, 6, 10].

The relevance of the issue of health improvement in children, adolescents and young people is practically assured, not only because it is based on the objective results of numerous studies, but also because health of the rising generation raises serious concerns among the senior management of the Russian Federation [5, 11].

In the theory and practice of physical education, it is not only knowledge of the common laws of age-related development of the basic physical qualities that is of great importance, but also teaching motor actions to students. In this regard, the possibility to control these processes in different age groups holds a specific place. Therefore, the problem of harmonization of women’s biological age with targeted effects on physical loads on their body is becoming even more relevant, as the stage of intensive development of physical potential is limited in time.

The standards of physical development are to be revised every 7-10 years due to their dependence on a number of factors. Given that the population living in the East Siberian region is influenced by specific climatic geographic conditions, negative ecological factors, regional indicators of physical development, physical fitness, and will have certain peculiarities, different from the all-Russian standards, which should be taken into account in the process of physical education of female natives of Irkutsk [8, 10].

Objective of the study was to analyze the changes in similar characteristics of physical development and physical fitness of female preschoolers, pupils and students (from 4 to 21 years old) living in East Siberia, using the monitoring technologies.

Methods and structure of the study. In accordance with the RF Government decree dated 29.12.2001 №916 "Concerning All-Russian system of monitoring of physical health of the population, physical development of children, teenagers and youth", and taking into consideration the procedure for its implementation in order to determine the level of physical development and physical fitness of female natives of the East Siberian region, the standard tests were used; they were similar and were used in all age groups according to the conventional methods. Physical development was assessed by measuring height, weight, chest circumference (CC), dynamometry of the right and left hand muscles. Physical fitness was evaluated using the following tests: "standing long jump" (to measure the dynamic power of the lower limbs), "sit-ups per 30 seconds" (to measure speed-strength endurance of the flexor muscles of the trunk) and "sit and reach" (to measure active flexibility of the spine and hip joints) [2, 4, 9]. The total number of the surveyed was 7357 persons, among them were: 695 (9.45%) - preschool girls, 835 (11.3%) - schoolgirls and 5827 (79.2%) - full-time students learning in IrNITU. The data was processed by the method of variation statistics. [8] A total of 7357 people: 695 (9.45%) - preschool girls, 835 (11.3%) - schoolgirls and 5827 (79.2%) – full-time female students of NRIrSTU were examined [8].

Results and discussion. The changes in height of the examined females can conditionally be divided into four periods (Table 1): 1. In 4-6-year-old girls the body length increases by 6 cm per year. The greatest value of their annual growth (9.2 cm) is noted at the age of 7 years old. 2. However, in 8-9-year-old schoolgirls the growth rate decreases to 4 cm per year. 3. From 10 to 13 years, this rate increases again to 6-7 cm per year, and at the age of 14 years amounts to 4 cm per year. 4. From 15 to 21 years, the increment in this value declines considerably, and from 17 to 21 years it does not change significantly in girls.

The increase of body weight of the examined females is conditionally divided into three stages: 1. From 4 to 9 years - it increases by 2-3 kg per year. 2. From 10 to 15 years, the increase in schoolgirls’ weight reaches 3-5 kg. 3. Starting from 16 years old, the increase in the body weight is insignificant - less than 1 kg per year.

The changes in the CC of girls and young women can also be divided into three stages: 1. From 4 to 6 years - the index values increase by 1.6 cm per year. 2. In 7-year-old girls it is higher - 3 cm per year, and in the subsequent periods up to 17 years inclusive, it varies from 1 to 2.2 cm per year. 3. From 18 to 21 years, there is a significant (9.7 cm) increase in the CC, and in the subsequent periods (up to 21 years), its changes are less pronounced (up to 2.4 cm per year).

Table 1. Physical development of female preschoolers, pupils and students

Age

Height (cm)

Weight (kg)

Chest circumference (cm)

Dynamometry of right hand muscles (kg)

Dynamometry of left hand muscles (kg)

4 y.o.

102.5±0.3

16.3±0.1

51.1±0.1

1.3±0.1

1.0±0.1

5 y.o.

108.0±0.3*

18.0±0.1*

52.7±0.1*

2.2±0.1*

1.7±0.1*

6 y.o.

114.6±0.2*

19.9±0.1*

54.3±0.1*

3.2±0.1*

2.5±0.1*

7 y.o.

123.8±0.5*

23.4±0.4*

57.3±0.4*

11.1±0.2*

9.3±0.3*

8 y.o.

127.0±0.3*

25.1±0.3*

58.7±0.3**

12.0±0.2***

10.1±0.2**

9 y.o.

131.2±0.4*

27.7±0.3*

60.8±0.3*

13.1±0.2*

11.1±0.2*

10 y.o.

137.9±0.4*

31.2±0.3*

62.2±0.3**

13.9±0.2*

11.8±0.2**

11 y.o.

144.9±0.4*

35.2±0.3*

64.2±0.2*

15.4±0.1*

12.9±0.1*

12 y.o.

150.6±0.3*

39.2±0.3*

66.4±0.2*

17.0±0.1*

14.6±0.1*

13 y.o.

156.7±0.3*

44.7±0.4*

68.4±0.2*

18.9±0.2*

16.4±0.2*

14 y.o.

160.5±0.3*

48.6±0.4*

69.8±0.2*

20.9±0.2*

17.9±0.4*

15 y.o.

163.0±0.3*

51.7±0.4*

70.7±0.3***

22.9±0.2*

19.9±0.2*

16 y.o.

164.2±0.4*

53.9±0.6**

72.1±0.4**

24.2±0.3*

21.2±0.3*

17 y.o.

164.9±0.2

55.2±0.7

74.2±0.5**

25.8±0.4**

22.5±0.4**

18 y.o.

165.0±0.5

55.3±0.2

83.9±0.4*

26.6±0.3*

24.6±0.2

19 y.o.

165.0±0.2

55.8±0.2

86.3±0.3*

26.7±0.2

24.8±0.2

20 y.o.

165.1±0.1

56.1±0.2

86.6±0.4

27.1±0.1

25.0±0.3

21 y.o.

165.5±0.3

56.1±0.3**

88.1±0.2*

27.7±0.2

25.3±0.1**

P *<0.001, P **<0.01, P ***<0.05, as against the preceding age period

                                                                 

The dynamics of changes in the characteristics of dynamometry of the right and left hand muscles is identical and can also be divided into three stages: 1. From 4 to 6 years, it is characterized by an insignificant change in the muscle strength - up to 1 kg per year; 2. 7-year-old girls demonstrate the greatest increase in the muscle strength, of both the right and left hand: 7-9 and 6-8 kg, respectively. In the subsequent periods up to 17 (right hand) and 18 (left hand) years, the increase in the muscle strength is relatively even -by 0.7-2.1 kg per year. It should be noted that the age of 11-13 years (right hand) and 12-15 years (left hand) are characterized by more pronounced growth rates; 3. At the age of 18 years and older, the right and left hand muscle strength increases slightly by 0.8 kg per year.

 

Table 2. Physical fitness of female preschoolers, pupils and students

 P *<0.001, P **<0.01, P ***<0.05, as against the preceding age period

              Age (y.o.)

Test

4

5

6

7

8

9

Sit-ups per 30 sec (number of reps)

4.3±0.3

5.5±0.2*

8.0±0.3*

15.6±0.4*

16.3±0.2

18.0±0.2*

Sit and reach  (сm)

3.8±0.4

3.0±0.3

4.0±0.3***

5.5±0.6***

6.0 ±0.3

6.5±0.3*

Standing long jump (сm)

62.9±1.2

79.2±0.9*

93.5±0.9*

100.3±2.0**

109.5±1.1*

120.8±1.0*

Age (y.o.)

10

11

12

13

14

 

15

 

Sit-ups per 30 sec (number of reps)

19.9±02*

21.7±0.2*

22.2±0.1***

22.5±0.2

22.3±0.2

22.5±0.2

Sit and reach  (сm)

7.5±0.3***

8.6±0.2**

8.2±0.2

8.8±0.2

9.9±0.3**

10.1±0.3

Standing long jump (сm)

135.4±0.9*

145.9±0.8*

154.2±0.7*

158.2±0.7*

163.4±0.7*

167.8±0.8*

Age (y.o.)

16

17

18

19

20

 

21

 

Sit-ups per 30 sec (number of reps)

22.7±0.2

23.5±0.3***

22.5±0.1**

22.8±0.1***

22.5±0.1***

21.6±0.2

Sit and reach  (сm)

11.2±0.3**

12.5±0.5***

15.8±0.1*

15.8±0.1

16.1±0.2

16.4±0.3

Standing long jump (сm)

169.1±1.1

171.8±1.4

156.9±0.4*

157.0±0.1

155.4±0.5**

156.0±0.9

 

While analyzing the changes in the characteristics of speed-strength endurance of the trunk muscles of the examined females (Table 2), they can conditionally de divided into 3 stages: 1. Pronounced increase (4-7 years) in the index values up to 7.6 times per year at the age of 7 years. 2. Moderate increase (8-17 years) in the index values up to 0.8 times per year at the age of 17 years. 3. Low increase (18, 19 years) - up to 0.5 times per year, or a decrease in the studied index values up to 1.1 times per year (20-21 years).

Assessment of the flexibility characteristics of the spine and hip joints showed its changes at three stages: 1. 1.5 cm increase per year (4 to 7 years). 2. Undulating changes in the index values (8 to 18 years). Minimal changes at the age of 12 (0.4 cm per year) and 15 (0.2 cm per year) years, and maximum changes - at the age of 18 years (3.3 cm per year). 3. From 19 to 21 years, the flexibility characteristics remain unchanged (19 years), or they increase insignificantly (up to 0.3 cm per year).

The study of the dynamic force of the lower limbs (Fig. 3) can also be conditionally subdivided into three stages: 1. From 4 to 6 years - intensive (up to 16 cm per year) development of the index values. 2. Moderate (from 4 to 14 cm per year) development at the age of 7-15 years. It should be noted that at the age from 9 to 12 years it is more pronounced (9-14 cm per year). 3. Insignificant (16-21 years) increase (up to 2 cm per year) or decrease (up to 15 cm per year - 18 years).

When analyzing the physical development data in different age groups, we noted that their dynamics could be divided into 3 main periods. And when various indicators of physical development change, we observed their most pronounced increase in the pre-school age and less pronounced increase in later years (after 17-18 years). The age of 7-8 years is the most critical (the transition from the 1st to the 2nd stages), and it should be taken into account when designing the educational process at elementary school.

The analysis of the changes in the physical fitness characteristics reveals that its dynamics can be divided into 3 main stages. Stage 1 (preschool age) is characterized by a pronounced increase in the test results. Stage 2 (8-16, 17 years) is marked a moderate increase, which is activated in the sensitive periods. Stage 3 (16-17 years) is characterized by an insignificant increase in the test results, or even their significant reduction.

Conclusion. Therefore, the importance of the common laws and peculiarities of changes in physical development and physical fitness of female preschoolers, pupils and students is one of the most promising ways to improve the system of their physical education within educational institutions of different levels, with due regard to not only the characteristics of their work and leisure, but also regional conditions of life and national traditions.

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