Applied physical education program for special music boarding schools

Фотографии: 

Dr.Med., Professor M.M. Kolokol'tsev1
Instructional coordinator D.G. Dryukov-Filatov2
1National Research Irkutsk State Technical University, Irkutsk
2Irkutsk Specialized Children and Youth Sports School of Olympic Reserve, Irkutsk

Keywords: boarding school, music training, physical development, physical fitness, applied professional physical training, selective part of lesson.

Introduction. Studying music is the process, which involves considerable physical exertion and requires good physical health. Some scholars have already drawn attention to the fact that people studying music tend to have underdeveloped and weak back and neck muscle groups resulting in postural disorder [3, 5]. The techniques of playing keyboard and percussion instruments set down stringent requirements for speed and coordination of fine motor response and switching from one operation to another [2], while playing wind instruments necessitates strong and well-developed breathing muscles [7]. Therefore, the physical education and sport means are essential for the future musicians in terms of music training process [1, 4, 6]. For this reason, adoption of new innovative means and methods of physical education geared to facilitate motor skills enhancement and overall physical development of the future musicians is the issue of crucial importance [8]. The focus is on the targeted implementation of means of physical education within boarding schools specializing in music mostly due to the fact that the academic schedule of the music pupils is characterized by deficient general physical activity, mostly monotonous working posture and movements during the day and considerable amount of loads for certain trunk and limb muscles. In view of this, physical education becomes even more important, and, therefore innovative approaches to applied professional physical training (APPT) of pupils in the music boarding school need to be introduced. Scientific literature poorly covers the issues concerning the current status of physical development and fitness of pupils [6] and improvement of the methodology for physical education classes structuring in specialized music boarding schools likewise. Thus, consideration of these issues appears to be highly relevant.

Objective of the study was to increase physical development and fitness of the teenage pupils in the music boarding school by implementing a set of physical exercises based on the principles of applied professional physical training to the selective part of the physical education curriculum.

Methods and structure of the study. 36 secondary school children took part in the experiment; split into two groups: reference group (RG) and study group (SG). The RG subjects were assigned to physical education classes conducted according to the basic unit of the state curriculum: three 40-minute classes a week comprising conditioning exercises. An educational institution may set the framework for selective part of the physical education curriculum in accordance with instructional and methodological recommendations “On introduction of the third additional academic hour to physical education course in educational institutions of the Russian Federation” and the decree of the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation, Ministry of Heath, Ministry of Sport and Russian Academy of Education “On development of physical education process in educational institutions of the Russian Federation”. Hence, the SG subjects were engaged in body conditioning lessons (BC) twice a week; the third additional lesson was selective one, based on APPT with a focus on occupational diseases of musicians: 2 BC lessons + 1 APPT lesson (of 40 minutes each). 28 minutes of the third selective lesson of a week-long cycle were allocated for special practical exercises based on circuit training. The structure and content of lessons corresponded to the purpose and objectives of the study, which considered the training cycles and appropriate learning models in terms of academic quarters. Developmental regimen comprised series of mesocycles, each made up of 8-10 week-long microcycles. Intensity of exercises during classes was calculated based on the differentiated approach to gender, age, physical and motor fitness level of each research subject. The third lesson in the SG was characterized by a wide range of program and methodological methods, while exercises were performed by the pointwise fractional method. Lesson plan for the school age group included professionally-oriented exercises geared to develop such qualities as strength, speed, agility, coordination of movements, static endurance of neck, shoulder girdle and back muscles, since these very groups of muscles are mainly exposed to physical load in the musician's professional activity. In order to develop the qualities mentioned above, the following exercises were used: explosive strength workouts (small medicine ball throwing, jumping), dynamic strength (partner resistance exercises, bodyweight exercises with resistance of the individual’s 1/3 or 1/2 body weight, using resistance bands, expanders and hand grippers), dance movements with jumping rope and a ball, active games to background music. Close attention was paid to development of the major muscle groups through climbing, running, jumping, gymnastic rings and bar exercises, relay races (mixed and with a ball), relay race games with storylines. Exercises with small, big and medicine balls were used. Finger strengthening exercises were used to prevent hand diseases (muscle cramps). Agility training for children was based on adoption of sport games techniques, learning the specifics of gymnastics, acrobatics, track-and-field athletics, practicing balance and vestibular exercises. Anthropometric measurements (height, body mass index, chest circumference) and functional tests (vital capacity, wrist muscle strength) were taken in boys twice a year.

Motor performance of teenagers was assessed twice: at the beginning and at the end of an academic year through a number of tests, which included “10x5 min shuttle run” (speed endurance and agility), “20-meter flying sprint” (speed), “Pull-ups” (reps, strength and strength endurance of the shoulder girdle muscles), “Crunches” (reps per 30 seconds, speed-strength endurance of trunk flexors), “Sit and reach” (assessment of flexibility of spine and hip joints), “Standing long jump” (cm, dynamic strength of lower limb muscles).

Data sample description was carried out by calculating median value (Ме) and interquartile range from the 25th percentile to the 75th percentile (Q25-Q75). Hypothesis testing on statistical significance of the values of the studied parameters was conducted using the Mann–Whitney U test. Differences were considered to be statistically significant at the level P<0.05.

Results and discussion. The level of physical development of the secondary school-age pupils was proved to be insignificantly different at the beginning of the experiment in SG and RG (Р>0.05). By the end of the experiment, a considerable increase in anthropometric and physiometric indicators has been observed in both of the groups, which can be explained by the natural biological process of growth and development of the children. However, considerably higher physiometric indicators (vital capacity, wrist muscle strength) were registered in the SG as compared to those in the RG (Р<0.05), which, as we believe, can be attributed to the designed technology having been implemented within the selective part of the lesson in terms of the physical education process.

The most noticeable positive results were observed in the dynamics of physical fitness indices in the RG subjects (Table 1).

Before the experiment (mesocycle 1), the initial physical fitness indicators in the pupils of both of the groups were proved to be quite similar (Р>0.05). By the final stage of the experiment (the end of the experiment – mesocycle 4, May), the indicators in some motor assessment tests have increased in the SG and RG pupils. In the study group (Table 1), positive significant differences were observed in 5 out of 6 tests, in the reference group – 2 out 6. It should be noted that the dynamics of indicator improvement (expressed as percentage) in all tests were greater in the study group teenagers in contrast to that in the reference group. The most noticeable positive changes were registered in the strength tests, such as “Pull-ups” (32.6 percent) and “Crunches” (10.4 percent) as well as the “Bending forward” test assessing the spine and hip joints flexibility.

Table 1. Dynamics of physical fitness indicators of secondary pupils in reference and study groups

Tests

Mesocycle

Period of monitoring

Reference group, n=17

Ме (Q25-Q75)

 

Р

Study group, n=19

Ме (Q25-Q75)

Р

10x5 min shuttle run (sec)

1st

September

20.1

(19.8 – 21.05)

 

Р>0.05

19.97

(19.9 – 20.95)

 

Р<0.05

4th

May

20.45

(20.2 – 20.8)

18.65

( 18.35 – 20)

20-meter flying sprint (sec)

1st

September

10.15

(9.65 – 10.4)

 

Р>0.05

10.85

 (10.4 – 12.1)

 

Р<0.05

4th

May

9.9

(9.4 – 10.15)

10.2

( 10.05 – 11.75)

Pull-ups (reps)

1st

September

10

(10 – 13)

 

Р<0.05

11

(9 – 15)

 

Р<0.05

4th

May

12

(9 – 13)

14.59

(10 – 18)

Bending forward (cm)

1st

September

0.5

(0 – 2)

 

Р<0.05

1

(0.5 – 4)

 

Р<0.05

4th

May

2.5

(1 – 4.5)

4

(2.5 – 6.5)

Standing long jump (cm)

1st

September

193

(192 – 211)

 

Р>0.05

191.5

(175.5 – 209)

 

Р>0.05

4th

May

195.5

(190 – 201)

198.5

(196.5 – 213)

Crunches (reps)

1st

September

34

( 28.5 – 36)

 

Р>0.05

33.5

(29 – 36)

 

Р<0.05

4th

May

34.5

(30.5 – 36)

37

(34.5 – 37.5)

Р– significance of differences is shown between the 1st and 4th mesocycles.

Conclusions. The innovative selective part of the third lesson proved to be more effective for the secondary pupils than the general education program of the physical education course, as is evident from the significant improvement in the SG pupils' vital capacity and wrist muscle strength indicators. The developed teaching technologies implemented in the physical education process have a greater impact on the formation of the positive motor skills dynamics than in case with the reference group taking physical education classes conducted according to the state education program. The greater number of the SG pupils' tests results that are significantly different from the initial ones is an objective evidence for the fact. The developed technology broadens and complements the physical education program in special music boarding schools; it is recommended for implementation within educational institutions as the method of improving the physical education process. Technology approbation on other age-sex groups of the music boarding school children is of particular scientific and practical interest. 

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